Neuroblastoma in children: Update on clinicopathologic and genetic prognostic factors.
Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in childhood accounting for 8-10% of all childhood malignancies. The tumor is characterized by a spectrum of histopathologic features and a heterogeneous clinical phenotype. Modern multimodality therapy results in variable clinical response ranging from cure in localized tumors to limited response in aggressive metastatic disease. Accurate clinical staging and risk assessment based on clinical, surgical, biologic and pathologic criteria are of pivotal importance in assigning prognosis and planning effective treatment approaches. Numerous studies have analyzed the presence of several clinicopathologic and biologic factors in association with the patient's prognosis and outcome. Although patient's age, tumor stage, histopathologic classification, and MYCN amplification are the most commonly validated prognostic markers, several new gene mutations have been identified in sporadic and familial neuroblastoma cases that show association with an adverse outcome. Novel molecular studies have also added data on chromosomal segmental aberrations in MYCN nonamplified tumors. In this review, we provide an updated summary of the clinical, serologic and genetic prognostic indicators in neuroblastoma including classic factors that have consistently played a role in risk stratification of patients as well as newly discovered biomarkers that may show a potential significance in patients' management.
Pediatric hematology and oncology
Adolescent; Child; Child, Preschool; Chromosome Aberrations; Combined Modality Therapy; Female; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Male; N-Myc Proto-Oncogene Protein; Neoplasm Staging; Neuroblastoma
ALK; MYCN; cytogenetic; familial; neuroblastoma; prognosis; Cancer; children
Ahmed, A., Zhang, L., Reddivalla, N., Hetherington, M. Neuroblastoma in children: Update on clinicopathologic and genetic prognostic factors. Pediatric hematology and oncology 34, 165-185 (2017).