Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Associated Hospitalizations Among Young Children: 2015-2016


Brian Rha, Division of Viral Diseases and
Aaron T. Curns, Division of Viral Diseases and
Joana T. Lively, Division of Viral Diseases and
Angela P. Campbell, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Janet A. Englund, Seattle Children's Hospital
Julie A. Boom, Texas Children's Hospital Houston
Parvin H. Azimi, UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital Oakland
Geoffrey A. Weinberg, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry
Mary A. Staat, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
Rangaraj Selvarangan, Children's Mercy HospitalFollow
Natasha B. Halasa, Vanderbilt University Medical Center
Monica M. McNeal, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
Eileen J. Klein, Seattle Children's Hospital
Christopher J. Harrison, Children's Mercy HospitalFollow
John V. Williams, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh
Peter G. Szilagyi, University of California, Los Angeles
Monica N. Singer, UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital Oakland
Leila C. Sahni, Texas Children's Hospital Houston
Daniella Figueroa-Downing, Division of Viral Diseases and
Darius McDaniel, Division of Viral Diseases and
Mila M. Prill, Division of Viral Diseases and
Brett L. Whitaker, Division of Viral Diseases and
Laura S. Stewart, Vanderbilt University Medical Center
Jennifer E. Schuster, Children's Mercy HospitalFollow
Barbara A. Pahud, Children's Mercy HospitalFollow
Gina Weddle, Children's Mercy HospitalFollow
Vasanthi Avadhanula, Baylor College of Medicine
Flor M. Munoz, Texas Children's Hospital Houston
Pedro A. Piedra, Texas Children's Hospital Houston
Daniel C. Payne, Division of Viral Diseases and
Gayle Langley, Division of Viral Diseases and
Susan I. Gerber, Division of Viral Diseases and

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DOI: 10.1542/peds.2019-3611


Copyright © 2020 by the American Academy of Pediatrics. BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of hospitalized acute respiratory illness (ARI) among young children. With RSV vaccines and immunoprophylaxis agents in clinical development, we sought to update estimates of US pediatric RSV hospitalization burden. METHODS: Children active, prospective, population-based surveillance from November 1, 2015, to June 30, 2016, at 7 US pediatric hospital sites. Clinical information was obtained from parent interviews and medical records. Midturbinate nasal and throat flocked swabs were collected and tested for RSV by using molecular diagnostic assays at each site. We conducted descriptive analyses and calculated population-based rates of RSV-associated hospitalizations. RESULTS: Among 2969 hospitalized children included in analyses, 1043 (35%) tested RSV-positive; 903 (87%) children who were RSV-positive were old, and 526 (50%) were old; the highest age-specific rate was observed in 1-month-old infants (25.1 per 1000). Most children who were infected with RSV (67%) had no underlying comorbid conditions and no history of preterm birth. CONCLUSIONS: During the 2015-2016 season, RSV infection was associated with one-third of ARI hospitalizations in our study population of young children. Hospitalization rates were highest in infants conditions, suggesting that all young children could benefit from targeted interventions against RSV.

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