Title

Effect of Continuous Glucose Monitoring on Glycemic Control in Adolescents and Young Adults With Type 1 Diabetes: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

6-16-2020

Identifier

DOI: 10.1001/jama.2020.6940; PMCID: PMC7298603 (available on 2020-12-16)

Abstract

Importance: Adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes exhibit the worst glycemic control among individuals with type 1 diabetes across the lifespan. Although continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has been shown to improve glycemic control in adults, its benefit in adolescents and young adults has not been demonstrated.

Objective: To determine the effect of CGM on glycemic control in adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes.

Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized clinical trial conducted between January 2018 and May 2019 at 14 endocrinology practices in the US including 153 individuals aged 14 to 24 years with type 1 diabetes and screening hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of 7.5% to 10.9%.

Interventions: Participants were randomized 1:1 to undergo CGM (CGM group; n = 74) or usual care using a blood glucose meter for glucose monitoring (blood glucose monitoring [BGM] group; n = 79).

Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was change in HbA1c from baseline to 26 weeks. There were 20 secondary outcomes, including additional HbA1c outcomes, CGM glucose metrics, and patient-reported outcomes with adjustment for multiple comparisons to control for the false discovery rate.

Results: Among the 153 participants (mean [SD] age, 17 [3] years; 76 [50%] were female; mean [SD] diabetes duration, 9 [5] years), 142 (93%) completed the study. In the CGM group, 68% of participants used CGM at least 5 days per week in month 6. Mean HbA1c was 8.9% at baseline and 8.5% at 26 weeks in the CGM group and 8.9% at both baseline and 26 weeks in the BGM group (adjusted between-group difference, -0.37% [95% CI, -0.66% to -0.08%]; P = .01). Of 20 prespecified secondary outcomes, there were statistically significant differences in 3 of 7 binary HbA1c outcomes, 8 of 9 CGM metrics, and 1 of 4 patient-reported outcomes. The most commonly reported adverse events in the CGM and BGM groups were severe hypoglycemia (3 participants with an event in the CGM group and 2 in the BGM group), hyperglycemia/ketosis (1 participant with an event in CGM group and 4 in the BGM group), and diabetic ketoacidosis (3 participants with an event in the CGM group and 1 in the BGM group).

Conclusions and Relevance: Among adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes, continuous glucose monitoring compared with standard blood glucose monitoring resulted in a small but statistically significant improvement in glycemic control over 26 weeks. Further research is needed to understand the clinical importance of the findings.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03263494.

Journal Title

JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

323

Issue

23

First Page

2388

Last Page

2396

MeSH Keywords

Adolescent; Blood Glucose; Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1; Diabetic Ketoacidosis; Female; Glycated Hemoglobin A; Humans; Hyperglycemia; Hypoglycemia; Hypoglycemic Agents; Male; Mobile Applications; Monitoring, Ambulatory; Young Adult

Keywords

Adolescent; Blood Glucose; Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1; Diabetic Ketoacidosis; Female; Glycated Hemoglobin A; Humans; Hyperglycemia; Hypoglycemia; Hypoglycemic Agents; Male; Mobile Applications; Monitoring, Ambulatory; Young Adult

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