A Randomized Controlled Trial of Rise, a Community-Based Culturally Congruent Adherence Intervention for Black Americans Living with HIV.

Document Type


Publication Date



DOI: 10.1007/s12160-017-9910-4; PMCID: PMC5650942


BACKGROUND: Evidence-based HIV treatment adherence interventions have typically shown medium-sized effects on adherence. Prior evidence-based HIV treatment adherence interventions have not been culturally adapted specifically for Black/African Americans, the population most affected by HIV disparities in the USA, who exhibit lower adherence than do members of other racial/ethnic groups.

PURPOSE: We conducted a randomized controlled trial of Rise, a 6-month culturally congruent adherence counseling intervention for HIV-positive Black men and women.

METHODS: Rise was delivered by a trained peer counselor who used a problem-solving approach to address culturally congruent adherence barriers (e.g., medical mistrust, HIV stigma) and assisted with linkage to supportive services. A total of 215 participants were randomized to the intervention group (n = 107) or a wait-list control group (n = 108). Adherence was assessed daily via electronic monitoring.

RESULTS: In a repeated measures multivariate logistic regression model of dichotomous adherence (using a clinically significant cutoff of 85% of doses taken), adjusted for sociodemographic and medical covariates, adherence in the intervention group improved over time relative to the control group, (OR = 1.30 per month (95% CI = 1.12-1.51), p < 0.001), representing a large cumulative effect after 6 months (OR = 4.76, Cohen's d = 0.86).

CONCLUSIONS: Rise showed a larger effect on adherence than prior HIV adherence intervention studies. For greater effectiveness, interventions to improve adherence among Black people living with HIV may need to be customized to address culturally relevant barriers to adherence. ( ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT01350544).

Journal Title

Annals of behavioral medicine : a publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine





First Page


Last Page


MeSH Keywords

Adult; African Americans; Aged; Counseling; Culturally Competent Care; Female; HIV Infections; Humans; Male; Medication Adherence; Middle Aged


Adherence; Antiretroviral treatment; Black/African American; HIV; Intervention

Library Record