Mode of initial renal replacement therapy and transplant outcomes in the chronic kidney disease in children (CKiD) study.

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DOI: 10.1007/s00467-019-04416-2; PMCID: PMC7278892


BACKGROUND: Kidney transplant is the renal replacement therapy (RRT) of choice for children with end stage kidney disease (ESKD). Only 21.3% of children who initiate RRT receive a preemptive kidney transplant (PKT). We characterized the transition to RRT in children in the CKiD cohort including the prevalence of dialysis as first RRT vs. PKT and graft survival.

METHODS: 258 children enrolled in CKiD have initiated RRT, and 202 had post-RRT initiation data collected through phone or in-person follow-up. Characteristics by first RRT modality were compared using Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Parametric-accelerated failure time models were fit for transplantation. Graft failure was characterized using Kaplan-Meier methods and log rank tests.

RESULTS: Sixty-one percent received dialysis as first RRT modality and 39% PKT. Those with PKT were less likely to have glomerular disease and to be African-American, and had higher household-income. African-American subjects were nearly twice as likely to undergo dialysis prior to transplant. Those with a living donor and a college-educated mother had 40%-decreased odds of being dialysis experienced. Children with PKT were more likely to receive a living donor transplant. Only 5% of PKT subjects had graft failure by 4 years compared to 16% of those initially treated with dialysis (p = 0.092); however, after adjustment the effect of dialysis exposure was attenuated (p = 0.206).

CONCLUSION: CKiD subjects undergo PKT more often compared to nationally-reported rates, and are more likely to receive a kidney transplant within 1 year of starting dialysis. African-American race and lower household-income are associated with decreased access to PKT.

Journal Title

Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany)





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Graft loss; Hemodialysis; Pediatrics; Peritoneal dialysis; Preemptive


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