Management and outcomes of peripancreatic fluid collections and pseudocysts following non-operative management of pancreatic injuries in children.
BACKGROUND: Peripancreatic fluid collection and pseudocyst development is a common sequela following non-operative management (NOM) of pancreatic injuries in children. Our purpose was to review management strategies and assess outcomes.
METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective review was conducted of children treated with NOM following blunt pancreatic injury at 22 pediatric trauma centers between the years 2010 and 2015. Organized fluid collections were called "acute peripancreatic fluid collection" (APFC) if identified < 4 weeks and "pseudocyst" if > 4 weeks following injury. Data analysis included descriptive statistics Wilcoxon rank-sum, Kruskal-Wallis and t tests.
RESULTS: One hundred patients with blunt pancreatic injury were identified. Median age was 8.5 years (range 1-16). Forty-two percent of patients (42/100) developed organized fluid collections: APFC 64% (27/42) and pseudocysts 36% (15/42). Median time to identification was 12 days (range 7-42). Most collections (64%, 27/42) were observed and 36% (15/42) underwent drainage: 67% (10/15) percutaneous drain, 7% (1/15) needle aspiration, and 27% (4/15) endoscopic transpapillary stent. A definitive procedure (cystogastrostomy/pancreatectomy) was required in 26% (11/42). Patients with larger collections (≥ 7.1 cm) had longer time to resolution. Comparison of outcomes in patients with observation vs drainage revealed no significant differences in TPN use (79% vs 75%, p = 1.00), hospital length of stay (15 vs 25 median days, p = 0.11), time to tolerate regular diet (12 vs 11 median days, p = 0.47), or need for definitive procedure (failure rate 30% vs 20%, p = 0.75).
CONCLUSIONS: Following NOM of blunt pancreatic injuries in children, organized fluid collections commonly develop. If discovered early, most can be observed successfully, and drainage does not appear to improve clinical outcomes. Larger size predicts prolonged recovery.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III STUDY TYPE: Case series.
Pediatric surgery international
Abdominal Injuries; Adolescent; Child; Child, Preschool; Conservative Treatment; Drainage; Endoscopy; Female; Humans; Infant; Male; Pancreas; Pancreatectomy; Pancreatic Pseudocyst; Retrospective Studies; Stents; Wounds, Nonpenetrating
Pediatric pseudocysts; Pseudocysts; Trauma; pancreatic trauma
Rosenfeld, E. H., Vogel, A. M., Jafri, M., Burd, R., Russell, R., Beaudin, M., Sandler, A., Thakkar, R., Falcone, R. A., Wills, H., Upperman, J., Burke, R. V., Escobar, M. A., Klinkner, D. B., Gaines, B. A., Gosain, A., Campbell, B. T., Mooney, D., Stallion, A., Fenton, S. J., Prince, J. M., Juang, D., Kreykes, N., Naik-Mathuria, B. J. Management and outcomes of peripancreatic fluid collections and pseudocysts following non-operative management of pancreatic injuries in children. Pediatric surgery international 35, 861-867 (2019).