Modeling Major Adverse Outcomes of Pediatric and Adult Patients With Congenital Heart Disease Undergoing Cardiac Catheterization: Observations From the NCDR IMPACT Registry (National Cardiovascular Data Registry Improving Pediatric and Adult Congenital Treatment).
DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.117.027714; PMCID: PMC5698125
BACKGROUND: Risk standardization for adverse events after congenital cardiac catheterization is needed to equitably compare patient outcomes among different hospitals as a foundation for quality improvement. The goal of this project was to develop a risk-standardization methodology to adjust for patient characteristics when comparing major adverse outcomes in the NCDR's (National Cardiovascular Data Registry) IMPACT Registry (Improving Pediatric and Adult Congenital Treatment).
METHODS: Between January 2011 and March 2014, 39 725 consecutive patients within IMPACT undergoing cardiac catheterization were identified. Given the heterogeneity of interventional procedures for congenital heart disease, new procedure-type risk categories were derived with empirical data and expert opinion, as were markers of hemodynamic vulnerability. A multivariable hierarchical logistic regression model to identify patient and procedural characteristics predictive of a major adverse event or death after cardiac catheterization was derived in 70% of the cohort and validated in the remaining 30%.
RESULTS: The rate of major adverse event or death was 7.1% and 7.2% in the derivation and validation cohorts, respectively. Six procedure-type risk categories and 6 independent indicators of hemodynamic vulnerability were identified. The final risk adjustment model included procedure-type risk category, number of hemodynamic vulnerability indicators, renal insufficiency, single-ventricle physiology, and coagulation disorder. The model had good discrimination, with a C-statistic of 0.76 and 0.75 in the derivation and validation cohorts, respectively. Model calibration in the validation cohort was excellent, with a slope of 0.97 (standard error, 0.04;
CONCLUSIONS: The creation of a validated risk-standardization model for adverse outcomes after congenital cardiac catheterization can support reporting of risk-adjusted outcomes in the IMPACT Registry as a foundation for quality improvement.
Adolescent; Adult; Age Factors; Blood Coagulation; Blood Coagulation Disorders; Cardiac Catheterization; Chi-Square Distribution; Child; Child, Preschool; Female; Heart Defects, Congenital; Hemodynamics; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Kidney; Logistic Models; Male; Multivariate Analysis; Odds Ratio; Registries; Renal Insufficiency; Reproducibility of Results; Risk Assessment; Risk Factors; Time Factors; Treatment Outcome; United States; Young Adult
catheterization; congenital heart disease; outcomes; risk adjustment
Jayaram, N., Spertus, J. A., Kennedy, K. F., Vincent, R., Martin, G. R., Curtis, J. P., Nykanen, D., Moore, P. M., Bergersen, L. Modeling Major Adverse Outcomes of Pediatric and Adult Patients With Congenital Heart Disease Undergoing Cardiac Catheterization: Observations From the NCDR IMPACT Registry (National Cardiovascular Data Registry Improving Pediatric and Adult Congenital Treatment). Circulation 136, 2009-2019 (2017).