Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Pulmonary Hypertension in Children.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common pediatric breathing disorder, affecting 1-5% of all children. Pulmonary hypertension (PH), a severe complication of OSA, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite this important relationship between OSA and PH, there is sparse literature addressing this subject in children. This review will examine the putative relationship between OSA and PH, synthesize the available literature in children, and suggest a reasonable approach, despite limited data, for clinicians. We conclude that available evidence suggests many children with OSA have evidence of PH (estimates ranging from 0% to 85%) and vice versa (estimates ranging from 6% to 24%). Furthermore, previous studies demonstrate that treatment of the OSA, either with surgery or non-invasive ventilation, ameliorates pulmonary artery pressures to the extent of cure in a substantial number of cases. Future studies are required to better delineate the true co-occurrence of these diseases and help predict which patients are at greater risk for this serious complication. Clinicians who maintain a healthy vigilance for this important interaction of disease states will likely recognize opportunities to intervene and improve prognoses in these patients.
Paediatric respiratory reviews
Child; Early Medical Intervention; Humans; Hypertension, Pulmonary; Prognosis; Risk Assessment; Sleep Apnea, Obstructive
Pulmonary hypertension; obstructive sleep apnea; sleep-disordered breathing
Ingram DG, Singh AV, Ehsan Z, Birnbaum BF. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Pulmonary Hypertension in Children. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2017;23:33-39. doi:10.1016/j.prrv.2017.01.001