Association of Obesity with Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Kidney Disease Outcomes in Primary Proteinuric Glomerulopathies.
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Obesity is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease and contributes to the development and progression of kidney disease. However, the specific influence of obesity on outcomes in primary glomerular disease has not been well characterized.
METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, data were from 541 participants enrolled in the Nephrotic Syndrome Study Network (NEPTUNE), between 2010 and 2019, at 23 sites across North America. Blood pressure, lipids, and kidney disease outcomes including complete proteinuria remission, kidney failure, and chronic kidney disease progression were evaluated. Data were analyzed using linear and logistic regression with generalized estimating equations and time-varying Cox regression with Kaplan-Meier plots.
RESULTS: The prevalence of obesity at baseline was 43.3% (N = 156) in adults and 37.6% (N = 68) in children. In adults, obesity was longitudinally associated with higher systolic BP (β = 6.49, 95% CI: 2.41, 10.56, p = 0.002), dyslipidemia (OR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.30, 2.32, p < 0.001), triglycerides (β = 41.92, 95% CI: 17.12, 66.71, p = 0.001), and lower HDL (β = -6.92, 95% CI: -9.32, -4.51, p < 0.001). In children, obesity over time was associated with higher systolic BP index (β = 0.04, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.06, p < 0.001) and hypertension (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.98, p = 0.03). In both adults and children, obesity was associated with a significantly lower hazard of achieving complete remission of proteinuria (adult HR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.69, 0.88, p < 0.001; pediatric HR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.61, 0.84, p < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: Obesity was associated with higher cardiovascular risk and less proteinuria remission from nephrotic syndrome in adults and children with proteinuric glomerulopathies. Weight-loss strategies may forestall cardiovascular disease and progressive kidney function decline in this high-risk patient group.
Body mass index; Hypertension; Nephrotic syndrome; Obesity; Pediatrics; Proteinuria
Shah, P. P., Brady, T. M., Meyers, K. E., O'Shaughnessy, M. M., Gibson, K. L., Srivastava, T., Zee, J., Cattran, D., Tuttle, K. R., Gadegbeku, C., Glenn, D., Derebail, V., Smith, A., Wang, C., Gillespie, B. W., Bitzer, M., Sethna, C. B. Association of Obesity with Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Kidney Disease Outcomes in Primary Proteinuric Glomerulopathies. Nephron 145, 245-255 (2021).