Title

Prevention of Growth Failure in Turner Syndrome: Long-Term Results of Early Growth Hormone Treatment in the "Toddler Turner" Cohort.

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

2021

Identifier

DOI: 10.1159/000513788

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: In the randomized "Toddler Turner" study, girls who received growth hormone (GH) starting at ages 9 months to 4 years (early-treated [ET] group) had marked catch-up growth and were 1.6 ± 0.6 SD taller than untreated (early-untreated [EUT]) control girls after 2 years. However, whether the early catch-up growth would result in greater near-adult height (NAH) was unknown. Therefore, this extension study examined the long-term effects of toddler-age GH treatment on height, pubertal development, and safety parameters.

METHODS: Toddler Turner study participants were invited to enroll in a 10-year observational extension study for annual assessments of growth, pubertal status, and safety during long-term GH treatment to NAH for both ET and EUT groups.

RESULTS: The ET group was taller than the EUT group at all time points from preschool to maturity and was significantly taller at the onset of puberty (p = 0.016), however, the difference was not significant at NAH. For the full cohort (ET + EUT combined, n = 50) mean (± SD) NAH was 151.2 ± 7.1 cm at age 15.0 ± 1.3 years. NAH standard deviation score (SDS) was within the normal range (>-2.0) for 76% of ET and 60% of EUT subjects (68% overall) and correlated strongly with height SDS at GH start (r = 0.78; p < 0.01), which in turn had a modest inverse correlation with age at GH start (i.e., height SDS declined with increasing age in untreated girls [r = -0.30; p = 0.016]). No new safety concerns arose.

CONCLUSION: Although the ET group was taller throughout, height SDS at NAH was not significantly different between groups due to catch-down growth of ET girls during lapses in GH treatment after the Toddler study and similar long-term GH exposure overall. Early initiation of GH by age 6 years, followed by uninterrupted treatment during childhood, can prevent ongoing growth failure and enable attainment of height within the normal range during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood.

Journal Title

Horm Res Paediatr

Volume

94

Issue

1-2

First Page

18

Last Page

35

Keywords

Childhood; Final height; Growth hormone; Near-adult height; Prepuberty; Puberty; Safety; Thelarche; Turner syndrome

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