Sleep and type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents: Proposed theoretical model and clinical implications.
Youth with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) experience more sleep disturbances and shorter sleep durations compared to their healthy peers. Researchers have now uncovered the negative mental health and physical health outcomes associated with poor sleep in youth with T1D. The field of T1D sleep research currently operates under the broad notion that sleep behaviors impact treatment adherence, which ultimately lead to worse long-term health outcomes. This model however does not explain how behavior influences T1D management and sleep outcomes on a day-to-day basis, leading to difficulties in providing tailored treatment recommendations. In this review, we present a theoretical framework that describes the recursive cycle between sleep behaviors, T1D outcomes, and symptoms of negative affect/stress over a 24-hour period. This model is guided by the sleep literature, showing a clear relationship between poor sleep and negative affect, and the T1D literature demonstrating a link between poor sleep and disease management for youth with T1D. Further, emerging literature indicates a need for additional parent sleep assessment considering that T1D management and fear of hypoglycemia negatively impact parent sleep behaviors. Recommendations are provided to move the field toward effective intervention studies and new areas of research to evaluate and modify the proposed model.
Adolescent; Child; Child Behavior; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1; Humans; Models, Theoretical; Risk Factors; Sleep; Sleep Wake Disorders
adolescent; child; diabetes mellitus, type 1; parents; sleep
Monzon A, McDonough R, Meltzer LJ, Patton SR. Sleep and type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents: Proposed theoretical model and clinical implications. Pediatr Diabetes. 2019;20(1):78-85. doi:10.1111/pedi.12797