Title

Postnatal Sepsis and Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Premature Infants: Mechanistic Insights into "New BPD".

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

2-2022

Identifier

DOI: 10.1165/rcmb.2021-0353PS

Abstract

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a debilitating disease in premature infants resulting from lung injury that disrupts alveolar and pulmonary vascular development. Despite the use of lung-protective ventilation and targeted oxygen therapy, BPD rates have not significantly changed over the last decade. Recent evidence suggests that sepsis and conditions initiating the systemic inflammatory response syndrome in preterm infants are key risk factors for BPD. However, the mechanisms by which sepsis-associated systemic inflammation and microbial dissemination program aberrant lung development are not fully understood. Progress has been made within the last 5 years with the inception of animal models allowing mechanistic investigations into neonatal acute lung injury and alveolar remodeling attributable to endotoxemia and necrotizing enterocolitis. These recent studies begin to unravel the pathophysiology of early endothelial immune activation via pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptor 4 and disruption of critical lung developmental processes such as angiogenesis, extracellular matrix deposition, and ultimately alveologenesis. Here we review scientific evidence from preclinical models of neonatal sepsis-induced lung injury to new data emerging from clinical literature.

Journal Title

American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology

Volume

66

Issue

2

First Page

137

Last Page

145

MeSH Keywords

Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia; Humans; Infant, Newborn; Infant, Newborn, Diseases; Infant, Premature; Infant, Premature, Diseases; Sepsis; Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome

Keywords

Toll-like receptor 4; alveolar remodeling; bronchopulmonary dysplasia; pulmonary endothelium; sepsis

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