Postnatal Sepsis and Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Premature Infants: Mechanistic Insights into "New BPD".
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a debilitating disease in premature infants resulting from lung injury that disrupts alveolar and pulmonary vascular development. Despite the use of lung-protective ventilation and targeted oxygen therapy, BPD rates have not significantly changed over the last decade. Recent evidence suggests that sepsis and conditions initiating the systemic inflammatory response syndrome in preterm infants are key risk factors for BPD. However, the mechanisms by which sepsis-associated systemic inflammation and microbial dissemination program aberrant lung development are not fully understood. Progress has been made within the last 5 years with the inception of animal models allowing mechanistic investigations into neonatal acute lung injury and alveolar remodeling attributable to endotoxemia and necrotizing enterocolitis. These recent studies begin to unravel the pathophysiology of early endothelial immune activation via pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptor 4 and disruption of critical lung developmental processes such as angiogenesis, extracellular matrix deposition, and ultimately alveologenesis. Here we review scientific evidence from preclinical models of neonatal sepsis-induced lung injury to new data emerging from clinical literature.
American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology
Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia; Humans; Infant, Newborn; Infant, Newborn, Diseases; Infant, Premature; Infant, Premature, Diseases; Sepsis; Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
Toll-like receptor 4; alveolar remodeling; bronchopulmonary dysplasia; pulmonary endothelium; sepsis
Salimi U, Dummula K, Tucker MH, Dela Cruz CS, Sampath V. Postnatal Sepsis and Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Premature Infants: Mechanistic Insights into "New BPD". Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2022;66(2):137-145. doi:10.1165/rcmb.2021-0353PS