Interindividual Variability and Differential Tissue Abundance of Mitochondrial Amidoxime Reducing Component Enzymes in Humans.
Mitochondrial amidoxime-reducing component (mARC) enzymes are molybdenum-containing proteins that metabolize a number of endobiotics and xenobiotics. The interindividual variability and differential tissue abundance of mARC1 and mARC2 were quantified using targeted proteomics in three types of tissue fractions: 1) pediatric liver tissue homogenates, 2) total membrane fraction of the paired liver and kidney samples from pediatric and adult donors, and 3) pooled S9 fractions of the liver, intestine, kidney, lung, and heart. The absolute levels of mARC1 and mARC2 in the pediatric liver homogenate were 40.08 ± 4.26 and 24.58 ± 4.02 pmol/mg homogenate protein, respectively, and were independent of age and sex. In the total membrane fraction of the paired liver and kidney samples, the abundance of hepatic mARC1 and mARC2 was comparable, whereas mARC2 abundance in the kidney was approximately 9-fold higher in comparison with mARC1. The analysis of the third set of samples (i.e., S9 fraction) revealed that mARC1 abundance in the kidney, intestine, and lung was 5- to 13-fold lower than the liver S9 abundance, whereas mARC2 abundance was approximately 3- and 16-fold lower in the intestine and lung than the liver S9, respectively. In contrast, the kidney mARC2 abundance in the S9 fraction was approximately 2.5-fold higher as compared with the hepatic mARC2 abundance. The abundance of mARC enzymes in the heart was below the limit of quantification (∼0.6 pmol/mg protein). The mARC enzyme abundance data presented here can be used to develop physiologically based pharmacokinetic models for the prediction of in vivo pharmacokinetics of mARC substrates. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: A precise targeted quantitative proteomics method was developed and applied to quantify newly discovered drug-metabolizing enzymes, mARC1 and mARC2, in pediatric and adult tissue samples. The data suggest that mARC enzymes are ubiquitously expressed in an isoform-specific manner in the human liver, kidney, intestine, and lung, and the enzyme abundance is not associated with age and sex. These data are important for developing physiologically based pharmacokinetic models for the prediction of in vivo pharmacokinetics of mARC substrates.
Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals
Ahire D, Basit A, Christopher LJ, Iyer R, Leeder JS, Prasad B. Interindividual Variability and Differential Tissue Abundance of Mitochondrial Amidoxime Reducing Component Enzymes in Humans. Drug Metab Dispos. 2022;50(3):191-196. doi:10.1124/dmd.121.000805