Title

Toileting Resistance Among Preschool-Age Children with and Without Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

5-1-2022

Identifier

DOI: 10.1097/DBP.0000000000001036

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may achieve continence later than other children. Little is known about factors associated with toileting resistance in children with ASD and other developmental delays/disabilities (DD). We sought to describe toileting resistance in children with ASD and DD and those from the general population (POP) and identify factors associated with toileting resistance in children with ASD and DD.

METHOD: Families and children aged 24 to 68 months were enrolled in the Study to Explore Early Development, a multisite case-control study on ASD. Children with ASD (N = 743) and DD (N = 766) and those from the POP (N = 693) who were 48 months or older were included in this study. Parents reported toileting resistance, gastrointestinal issues, behavior problems, and ASD symptoms in their children. Children completed an in-person evaluation to determine ASD status and developmental level.

RESULTS: Toileting resistance was more common among children with ASD (49.1%) than children with DD (23.6%) and those from the POP (8.0%). Diarrhea and deficits in social awareness were significantly associated with toileting resistance in children with ASD and DD. Constipation, expressive language delays, and low social motivation were significantly associated with toileting resistance only in children with ASD; very low visual reception skills and oppositional behaviors were significantly associated with toileting resistance in only children with DD (all p ≤ 0.05).

CONCLUSION: Evaluating gastrointestinal issues, developmental delays, and social deficits before toileting training may help identify children with atypical development who are likely to present with toileting resistance. These evaluations can be incorporated into health supervision visits.

Journal Title

Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics : JDBP

Volume

43

Issue

4

First Page

216

Last Page

223

MeSH Keywords

Autism Spectrum Disorder; Case-Control Studies; Child; Child, Preschool; Developmental Disabilities; Health Promotion; Humans; Parents; Problem Behavior

Keywords

Autism Spectrum Disorder; Case-Control Studies; Developmental Disabilities; Health Promotion; Parents; Problem Behavior

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