Document Type


Publication Date



DOI: 10.1007/s00467-022-05492-7; PMCID: PMC9437144


Pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by many co-morbidities, including impaired growth and development, CKD-mineral and bone disorder, anemia, dysregulated iron metabolism, and cardiovascular disease. In pediatric CKD cohorts, higher circulating concentrations of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) are associated with some of these adverse clinical outcomes, including CKD progression and left ventricular hypertrophy. It is hypothesized that lowering FGF23 levels will reduce the risk of these events and improve clinical outcomes. Reducing FGF23 levels in CKD may be accomplished by targeting two key stimuli of FGF23 production-dietary phosphate absorption and iron deficiency. Ferric citrate is approved for use as an enteral phosphate binder and iron replacement product in adults with CKD. Clinical trials in adult CKD cohorts have also demonstrated that ferric citrate decreases circulating FGF23 concentrations. This review outlines the possible deleterious effects of excess FGF23 in CKD, summarizes data from the adult CKD clinical trials of ferric citrate, and presents the Ferric Citrate and Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (FIT4KiD) study, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effects of ferric citrate on FGF23 in pediatric patients with CKD stages 3-4 ( Identifier NCT04741646).

Journal Title

Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany)





First Page


Last Page


MeSH Keywords

Adult; Child; Ferric Compounds; Fibroblast Growth Factors; Humans; Iron; Minerals; Phosphates; Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic; Renal Insufficiency, Chronic


Chronic kidney disease; Ferric citrate; Fibroblast growth factor 23; Pediatrics


Grant support

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit

Publisher's Link: