Document Type


Publication Date



DOI: 10.3390/ijerph191912310; PMCID: PMC9566526


Various factors may alter the risk for cardiovascular disease in adults with Down syndrome (Ds), yet few studies have examined differences in cardiac physiology in this population. Previous research suggested lower systolic and diastolic function, but inconsistent methodologies and younger samples warrant research in adults with Ds. Our aim is to compare the cardiac structure and function of adults with Ds to age- and sex-matched adults without Ds. Echocardiography was used to assess systolic function, diastolic function, and cardiac structure in n = 19 adults (Ds n = 9, control n = 10). Regarding cardiac structure, adults with Ds had increased left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end-systole compared to adults without Ds (p = 0.007). Regarding systolic and diastolic function, adults with Ds were found to have lower septal peak systolic annular velocity (S') (p = 0.026), lower lateral and septal mitral annular early diastolic velocity (E') (p = 0.007 and p = 0.025, respectively), lower lateral peak mitral annular late diastolic velocity (A') (p = 0.027), and higher lateral and septal mitral annular early systolic velocity to diastolic velocity ratios (E/e') (p = 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively). Differences in both cardiac structure and function were found when comparing adults with Ds to matched adults without Ds. Most of the differences were indicative of worse diastolic function.

Journal Title

Int J Environ Res Public Health





MeSH Keywords

Adult; Diastole; Down Syndrome; Echocardiography; Humans; Mitral Valve; Systole; Ventricular Function, Left


Down syndrome; cardiac function; cardiac structure; echocardiography


Grant support

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Publisher's Link: