Patterns of lipid-injectable emulsion use in neonatal intensive care units across the United States: A multi-institution survey.

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DOI: 10.1002/jpen.2422


BACKGROUND: Lipid-injectable emulsions (ILEs) are a necessity for neonates dependent on parenteral nutrition (PN). In this manuscript, we describe the patterns of ILE use in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in the United States (US).

METHODS: An electronic survey was sent to 488 NICUs across the US between December 2020 and March 2021. Survey fields included availability and utilization of various ILE in neonates.

RESULTS: The response rate was 22% (107 out of 488). Soybean oil ILE (SO-ILE) and soybean oil, medium-chain triglycerides, olive oil, fish oil ILE (SO, MCT, OO, FO-ILE) had similar availability (87% vs 86%, respectively), and SO, MCT, OO, FO-ILE was more commonly used (SO-ILE, 71% vs SO, MCT, OO, FO-ILE, 86%). Fish oil-ILE (FO-ILE) was used by 55% of centers. SO-ILE was most frequently used with PN and needs(79%). The most common reason for SO, MCT, OO, FO-ILE use was cholestasis (71%). ILE minimization was used by 28% of SO-ILE and 22% of SO, MCT, OO, FO-ILE users; 95% of these centers restrict SO, MCT, OO, FO-ILE to doses ≤2 g/kg/day. Twenty-two percent of centers started FO-ILE at direct bilirubin of >5 mg/dl.

CONCLUSION: The results of this survey reveal significant variability in ILE usage across the US. Lipid minimization with SO, MCT, OO, FO-ILE and initiation of FO-ILE for cholestasis at higher bilirubin thresholds are prevalent. Such reports are crucial for a better understanding of ILE use in the NICU and in future ILE development.

Journal Title

JPEN. Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition





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MeSH Keywords

Humans; Infant, Newborn; United States; Fat Emulsions, Intravenous; Soybean Oil; Intensive Care Units, Neonatal; Fish Oils; Olive Oil; Cholestasis; Bilirubin; Triglycerides


lipids; neonates; parenteral nutrition

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