Submitting/Presenting Author

Cintya SchweisbergerFollow

Presenter Status

Fellow

Abstract Type

Case report

Primary Mentor

Emily Paprocki, DO

Start Date

12-5-2021 11:30 AM

End Date

12-5-2021 1:30 PM

Presentation Type

Poster Presentation

Description

Background: Congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) is a rare inherited disease characterized by widespread loss of subcutaneous fat and severe metabolic abnormalities. Metreleptin, a synthetic analog of leptin, is a treatment modality that has been shown to decrease fasting triglycerides, fasting glucose, and HbA1c. Metformin use in infants has only been described in a few case reports of CGL and Donohue syndrome (insulin receptor mutation), and there is no established dosing for this age group. We report metreleptin, insulin, and metformin use in an infant with type 1 CGL who presented with marked hypertriglyceridemia, hypoleptinemia, hyperglycemia, and transaminitis.

Clinical Case: A 2-month-old African American female born SGA at term presented to her primary care physician for a well child check where she was noted to have poor weight gain, hyperphagia, and abdominal distension. She was subsequently admitted for failure to thrive with weight z-score of –2.17 and length z-score of –0.15. Initial labs were notable for triglycerides of 5,167 mg/dL, HDL 10 mg/dL, blood glucose 324 mg/dL, ALT 212 units/L, AST 215 units/L, and bicarbonate of 17 mmol/L. A random insulin level was elevated at 257 mcIU/mL. Adiponectin was undetectable and leptin was low at 0.3 ng/mL. Hemoglobin A1c was in diabetes mellitus range at 8.9%. She was started on detemir 1.0 units/kg/day on day 1 (titrated to a maximum dose of 4.4 units/kg/day) and metformin 50 mg/kg/day on day 3 of hospitalization. By day 4, triglycerides decreased to 758 mg/dL, AST to 119 units/L and ALT to 124 units/L. Preprandial glucoses improved ranging from 113 to 138 mg/dL. As her insurance denied coverage for detemir, she was discharged home on glargine 0.7 units/kg/day and metformin suspension. One month later, she was started on subcutaneous metreleptin, and glargine was discontinued. At 5 months of age, she had triglycerides 229 mg/dl, normal liver enzymes, and normal blood glucoses while on 0.056 mg/kg/day of subcutaneous metreleptin and metformin. Medications were well tolerated without side effects. She had improved growth and met all developmental milestones. Genetic evaluation revealed that she was homozygous for a pathogenic variant, c.589- 2A>G; p.Gln196fs*228 (rs116807569), in the AGPAT2 gene.

Conclusion: Leptin is important in regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism, and patients with CGL are deficient due to lack of adipose tissue. Metabolic abnormalities, including stabilization of glucoses and improved hypertriglyceridemia, in our patient markedly improved with initiation of metreleptin, metformin, and insulin. We present successful dosing of these treatment modalities without adverse reactions in an infant with CGL.

MeSH Keywords

congenital generalized lipodystrophy; metformin; metreleptin

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May 12th, 11:30 AM May 12th, 1:30 PM

Metreleptin and Metformin Use in an Infant with Congenital Generalized Lipodystrophy Secondary to AGPAT2 Mutation

Background: Congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) is a rare inherited disease characterized by widespread loss of subcutaneous fat and severe metabolic abnormalities. Metreleptin, a synthetic analog of leptin, is a treatment modality that has been shown to decrease fasting triglycerides, fasting glucose, and HbA1c. Metformin use in infants has only been described in a few case reports of CGL and Donohue syndrome (insulin receptor mutation), and there is no established dosing for this age group. We report metreleptin, insulin, and metformin use in an infant with type 1 CGL who presented with marked hypertriglyceridemia, hypoleptinemia, hyperglycemia, and transaminitis.

Clinical Case: A 2-month-old African American female born SGA at term presented to her primary care physician for a well child check where she was noted to have poor weight gain, hyperphagia, and abdominal distension. She was subsequently admitted for failure to thrive with weight z-score of –2.17 and length z-score of –0.15. Initial labs were notable for triglycerides of 5,167 mg/dL, HDL 10 mg/dL, blood glucose 324 mg/dL, ALT 212 units/L, AST 215 units/L, and bicarbonate of 17 mmol/L. A random insulin level was elevated at 257 mcIU/mL. Adiponectin was undetectable and leptin was low at 0.3 ng/mL. Hemoglobin A1c was in diabetes mellitus range at 8.9%. She was started on detemir 1.0 units/kg/day on day 1 (titrated to a maximum dose of 4.4 units/kg/day) and metformin 50 mg/kg/day on day 3 of hospitalization. By day 4, triglycerides decreased to 758 mg/dL, AST to 119 units/L and ALT to 124 units/L. Preprandial glucoses improved ranging from 113 to 138 mg/dL. As her insurance denied coverage for detemir, she was discharged home on glargine 0.7 units/kg/day and metformin suspension. One month later, she was started on subcutaneous metreleptin, and glargine was discontinued. At 5 months of age, she had triglycerides 229 mg/dl, normal liver enzymes, and normal blood glucoses while on 0.056 mg/kg/day of subcutaneous metreleptin and metformin. Medications were well tolerated without side effects. She had improved growth and met all developmental milestones. Genetic evaluation revealed that she was homozygous for a pathogenic variant, c.589- 2A>G; p.Gln196fs*228 (rs116807569), in the AGPAT2 gene.

Conclusion: Leptin is important in regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism, and patients with CGL are deficient due to lack of adipose tissue. Metabolic abnormalities, including stabilization of glucoses and improved hypertriglyceridemia, in our patient markedly improved with initiation of metreleptin, metformin, and insulin. We present successful dosing of these treatment modalities without adverse reactions in an infant with CGL.