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PMCID: PMC5108185 DOI: 10.2215/CJN.01270216


Background and objectives: Prior studies suggested that women with CKD have higher risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality than men, although putative mechanisms for this higher risk have not been identified. We assessed sex differences in (1) CVD risk factors and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), and (2) the relationship of left ventricular mass (LVM) with different measures of body size in children with CKD.

Design, setting, participants, and measurements: The study population comprised 681 children with CKD from the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children cohort, contributing 1330 visits. CVD risk factors were compared cross-sectionally by sex. LVH was defined as LVM/height2.7 >95th percentile and LVM relative to estimated lean body mass (eLBM) >95th percentile for age and sex. Differences in LVM by sex were assessed by adjusting for age, weight, height, and eLBM using bivariate and multivariate regression models.

Results: Girls were less likely to have uncontrolled hypertension (26% versus 38%, P=0.001), had lower diastolic BP z-scores (+0.3 versus +0.6, P=0.001), and had lower prevalence of high triglycerides (38% versus 47%, P=0.03) compared with boys. When LVH was defined by LVM indexed to height, girls had higher prevalence of LVH (16% versus 9%, P=0.01); when LVH was defined by LVM relative to eLBM, prevalence of LVH was similar between girls and boys (18% versus 17%, P=0.92). In regression models adjusting for eLBM, no sex differences in LVM were observed.

Conclusions: Despite lack of increased prevalence of CVD risk factors, indexing LVM to height showed a higher proportion of LVH among girls, while estimates of LVH based on eLBM showed no sex differences. Indexing LVM to eLBM may be an alternative to height indexing in children with CKD.

Journal Title

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol





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MeSH Keywords

Adolescent; Body Composition; Body Height; Body Weight; Child; Child, Preschool; Cohort Studies; Cross-Sectional Studies; Echocardiography; Female; Heart Ventricles; Humans; Hypertension; Hypertriglyceridemia; Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular; Male; Organ Size; Prevalence; Renal Insufficiency, Chronic; Risk Factors; Sex Factors; United States; Young Adult


Body Size; Body Weight; Humans; Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular; Male; Prevalence; Renal Insufficiency, Chronic; Sex Characteristics; Triglycerides; cardiovascular disease; child; chronic kidney disease; female; hypertension; left ventricular hypertrophy; pediatric nephrology; risk factors