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PMCID: PMC4990479 DOI: 10.1002/ijc.30236


Objective was to describe the relationship between the number of sterile site infections and duration of neutropenia during the first four cycles of chemotherapy and the risk of recurrence and overall survival in children with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). AAML0531 was a Children's Oncology Group randomized phase 3 clinical trial that included 1022 children with de novo AML. For this analysis, we focused on non-Down syndrome favorable and standard risk patients who completed at least 4 cycles of chemotherapy without recurrence or withdrawal during protocol therapy. Those receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in first remission were excluded. Five hundred and sixty-nine patients were included; 274 (48.2%) were favorable risk. The median cumulative time with neutropenia between Induction II to completion of Intensification II was 96 (range 54-204) days. Number of sterile site infections did not influence the risk of relapse or overall survival. However, longer duration of neutropenia was associated with a lower risk of relapse (hazard ratio 0.81 per 20 days neutropenia, p = 0.007). Longer duration of neutropenia was associated with a reduced risk of relapse for children with favorable and standard risk AML. Toxicity may be influenced by pharmacogenomics suggesting that individualized chemotherapy dosing may be an effective strategy.

Journal Title

International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer





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MeSH Keywords

Adolescent; Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols; Child; Child, Preschool; Disease-Free Survival; Female; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute; Male; Neutropenia; Recurrence; Remission Induction; Risk Factors; Treatment Outcome


acute myeloid leukemia; neutropenia; oncology; pediatric; relapse risk