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PMCID: PMC5340813 DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v23.i9.1608


AIM: To determine the clinical characteristics of children with gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) who died during the course of their admission.

METHODS: We interrogated the Pediatric Hospital Information System database, including International Classification of Diseases, Current Procedural Terminology and Clinical Transaction Classification coding from 47 pediatric tertiary centers extracting the population of patients (1-21 years of age) admitted (inpatient or observation) with acute, upper or indeterminate GIB (1/2007-9/2015). Descriptive statistics, unadjusted univariate and adjusted multivariate analysis of the associations between patient characteristics and treatment course with mortality was performed with mortality as primary and endoscopy a secondary outcome of interest. All analyses were performed using the R statistical package, v.3.2.3.

RESULTS: The population with GIB was 19528; 54.6% were male, overall mortality was 2.07%; (0.37% in patients with the principal diagnosis of GIB). When considering only the mortalities in which GIB was the principal diagnosis, 48% (12 of 25 principal diagnosis GIB mortalities) died within the first 3 d of admission, whereas 19.8% of secondary diagnosis GIB patients died with 3 d of admission. Patients who died were more likely to have received octreotide (19.8% c.f. 4.04%) but tended to have not received proton pump inhibitor therapy in the first 48 h, and far less likely to have undergone endoscopy during their admission (OR = 0.489, P < 0.0001). Chronic liver disease associated with a greater likelihood of endoscopy. Mortalities were significantly more likely to have multiple complex chronic conditions.

CONCLUSION: GIB associated mortality in children is highest within 7 d of admission. Multiple comorbidities are a risk factor whereas early endoscopy during the admission is protective.

Journal Title

World journal of gastroenterology : WJG





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MeSH Keywords

Adolescent; Child; Child, Preschool; Comorbidity; Databases, Factual; Female; Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage; Humans; Infant; Inpatients; Male; Patient Admission; Retrospective Studies; Risk Factors; Time Factors; Treatment Outcome; Young Adult


Endoscopy; Gastrointestinal hemorrhage; Hospital Information Systems; Liver disease; Mortality; Octreotide; Pediatrics; Proton pump inhibitors


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