Clinical Course of Enterovirus D68 in Hospitalized Children.

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DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000001421


BACKGROUND: Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has been sporadically reported as a cause of respiratory tract infections. In 2014, an international outbreak of EV-D68 occurred and caused severe respiratory disease in the pediatric population.

METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of children admitted to Children's Mercy Hospital from August 1, 2014, to September 15, 2014, with positive multiplex polymerase chain reaction testing for EV/rhinovirus (RV). Specimens were subsequently tested for EV-D68, and clinical data were obtained from the medical records. Patients with EV-D68 were compared with children presenting simultaneously with other EV/RV.

RESULTS: Of 542 eligible specimens, children with EV-D68 were significantly older than children with other EV/RV (4.6 vs. 2.2 years, P < 0.001). Children with EV-D68 were more likely to have a history of asthma (38.6% vs. 30.0%, P = 0.04) or recurrent wheezing (22.1% vs. 14.8%, P = 0.04). EV-D68-positive children more commonly received supplemental oxygen (86.7% vs. 65.0%, P < 0.001), albuterol (91.2% vs. 65.5%, P < 0.001) and corticosteroids (82.9% vs. 58.6%, P < 0.001). Age ≥5 years was an independent risk factor for intensive care unit management in EV-D68-infected children. Children with a history of asthma or recurrent wheezing and EV-D68 received supplemental oxygen (92.7% vs. 82.4%, P = 0.007) and magnesium (42.7% vs. 29.7%, P = 0.03) at higher rates and more continuous albuterol (3 vs. 2 hours, P = 0.03) than those with other EV/RV.

CONCLUSIONS: EV-D68 causes severe disease in the pediatric population, particularly in children with a history of asthma or recurrent wheezing. EV-D68-positive children are more likely to require therapy for refractory bronchospasm and may need intensive care unit- level care.

Journal Title

The Pediatric infectious disease journal





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MeSH Keywords

Child; Child, Preschool; Disease Outbreaks; Enterovirus D, Human; Enterovirus Infections; Female; Hospitalization; Humans; Male; Retrospective Studies

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