Document Type


Publication Date



PMCID: PMC6330884 DOI: 10.1155/2018/6348171


Purpose: Hemiepiphysiodesis has been widely used to correct angular deformity of long bone in immature patients. However, there is a limited knowledge about the biomechanical effect of this technique on the histopathological changes of the growth plate and the mechanism of recurrence of malformation after implant removal. We aimed to evaluate the biomechanical effect of hemiepiphysiodesis on the histopathological changes of the growth plate and the mechanism of recurrence of malformation after implant removal in Bama miniature pigs, and to explore the role of asymmetric stress during this procedure.

Methods: Eight 3-month-old male Bama miniature pigs sustained surgeries on the bilateral medial hind leg proximal tibia as the intervention group (n=16), and four pigs sustained bilateral sham surgeries as the control (n=8). In the 18th week after surgeries, hardware was removed in the unilateral leg of each animal in the intervention group. In the 24th week of the study, all animals were euthanized. A total of 24 samples were obtained and stained with H&E, TUNEL, and immunohistochemistry. Sixteen samples in the intervention group were divided into two subgroups. The tibias without an implant were included in the implant removal group (IR group), while the tibias with an implant were included in the implant persist group (IP group). The proximal tibia specimens were divided into 3 equidistant parts from medial to lateral, named as area A, area B, and area C, respectively. The change of thickness of growth plates, chondral apoptosis index, and the expression of Caspase-3, Caspase-9, CHOP, and P65 were compared.

Results: H&E staining showed the thickness of growth plate to be varied in different areas. In the IP group, the thickness of growth plate in areas A and B was statistically significantly thinner than that in area C (p

Conclusion: The thickness parameter of the growth plate changes with asymmetric pressure. When the pressure is relieved, the recurrence of malformation is related to the thickening of the growth plate.

Journal Title

Biomed Res Int



First Page


Last Page


MeSH Keywords

Animals; Apoptosis; Biomechanical Phenomena; Bone Diseases; Disease Models, Animal; Growth Plate; Immunohistochemistry; Male; Orthopedic Procedures; Random Allocation; Recurrence; Swine; Swine, Miniature; Tibia


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Publisher's Link: