Academic achievement in children with chronic kidney disease: a report from the CKiD cohort.

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DOI: 10.1007/s00467-018-4144-7; PMCID: PMC6453537


BACKGROUND: There are limited data to describe academic achievement outcomes for children with mild to moderate pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD). The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of low academic achievement in patients with mild to moderate CKD.

METHODS: Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, Second Edition, Abbreviated (WIAT-II-A) data were collected at entry into the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) study. Achievement in basic reading, spelling, mathematics, and total achievement was evaluated with a focus on the effects of comorbid CKD-related variables, neurocognitive, and school-based characteristics on academic achievement.

RESULTS: WIAT-II-A data were available for 319 children in the CKiD cohort. Low total academic achievement was present in 34% percent of the sample. There was no significant effect of CKD-related medical variables on academic achievement. Mathematics had the lowest distribution of achievement scores. In univariate models, low achievement was significantly related to days of missed school (p = 0.006) and presence of individualized education plan (p < 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS: Low academic achievement was seen in over one-third of children with CKD, with the most difficulty observed in the domain of mathematics. Providers and educators should monitor for academic difficulties in this population in order to facilitate early educational assistance and promote positive educational outcomes.

Journal Title

Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany)





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MeSH Keywords

Absenteeism; Adolescent; Adolescent Behavior; Adolescent Development; Age Factors; Child; Child Behavior; Child Development; Cognition; Educational Status; Female; Humans; Intelligence; Male; Prospective Studies; Renal Insufficiency, Chronic; Risk Factors; Severity of Illness Index; Underachievement; United States


Academic achievement; Chronic kidney disease

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