Histone deacetylase 6 regulates endothelial MyD88-dependent canonical TLR signaling, lung inflammation, and alveolar remodeling in the developing lung.

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DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00247.2018; PMCID: PMC6766719


Lung endothelial cell (EC) immune activation during bacterial sepsis contributes to acute lung injury and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature infants. The epigenetic regulators of sepsis-induced endothelial immune activation, lung inflammation, and alveolar remodeling remain unclear. Herein, we examined the role of the cytoplasmic histone deacetylase, HDAC6, in regulating EC Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling and modulating sepsis-induced lung injury in a neonatal model of sterile sepsis. In human primary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC), lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced MAPK, IKK-β, and p65 phosphorylation as well as inflammatory cytokine expression were exaggerated with the HDAC6 inhibitor tubastatin A, and by dominant-negative HDAC6 with a mutated catalytic domain 2. Expression of HDAC6 wild-type protein suppressed LPS-induced myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) acetylation, p65 (Lys310) acetylation, MyD88/TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) coimmunoprecipitation, and proinflammatory TLR4 signaling in HPMEC. In a neonatal mouse model of sepsis, the HDAC6 inhibitor tubastatin A amplified lung EC TLR4 signaling and vascular permeability. HDAC6 inhibition augmented LPS-induced MyD88 acetylation, MyD88/TRAF6 binding, p65 acetylation, canonical TLR4 signaling, and inflammation in the developing lung. Sepsis-induced decreases in the fibroblast growth factors FGF2 and FGF7 and increase in matrix metalloproteinase-9 were worsened with HDAC6 inhibition, while elastin expression was equally suppressed. Exaggerated sepsis-induced acute lung inflammation observed with HDAC6 inhibition worsened alveolar simplification evidenced by increases in mean linear intercepts and decreased radial alveolar counts. Our studies reveal that HDAC6 is a constitutive negative regulator of cytoplasmic TLR4 signaling in EC and the developing lung. The therapeutic efficacy of augmenting HDAC6 activity in neonatal sepsis to prevent lung injury needs to be evaluated.

Journal Title

American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology





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MeSH Keywords

Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; Animals; Cytokines; Endothelial Cells; Histone Deacetylase 6; Humans; Lipopolysaccharides; Lung; Mice; Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88; Pneumonia; Signal Transduction; Toll-Like Receptor 4


HDAC6; MyD88 acetylation; alveolar remodeling; endothelium; lung inflammation.

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