Serum amoxicillin levels in young infants (0-59 days) with sepsis treated with oral amoxicillin.
Background: WHO recommends simplified antibiotics for young infants with sepsis in countries where hospitalisation is not feasible. Amoxicillin provides safe, Gram-positive coverage. This study was done to determine pharmacokinetics, drug disposition and interpopulation variability of oral amoxicillin in this demographic.
Methods: Young infants with signs of sepsis enrolled in an oral amoxicillin/intramuscular gentamicin treatment arm of a sepsis trial in Karachi, Pakistan, were studied. Limited pharmacokinetic (PK) sampling was performed at 0, 2-3 and 6-8 hours following an index dose of oral amoxicillin. Plasma concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Values of ≥2 mg/L were considered as the effect threshold, given the regional minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. RESULTS: Amoxicillin concentrations were determined in 129 samples from 60 young infants. Six of 44 infants had positive blood cultures with predominant Gram-positive organisms. Forty-four infants contributing blood at ≥2 of 3 specified timepoints were included in the analysis. Mean amoxicillin levels at 2-3 hours (11.6±9.5 mg/L, n=44) and 6-8 hours (16.4±9.3 mg/L, n=20) following the index dose exceeded the MIC for amoxicillin (2.0 mg/L) against resistant S. pneumoniae strains. Of 20 infants with three serum levels, 7 showed a classic dose-exposure profile and 13 showed increasing concentrations with time, implying delayed absorption or excretion.
Conclusion: Amoxicillin concentrations in sera of young infants following oral administration at 75-100 mg/kg/day daily divided doses exceeds the susceptibility breakpoint for >50% of a 12-hour dosing interval.Oral amoxicillin may hold potential as a safe replacement of parenteral ampicillin in newborn sepsis regimens, including aminoglycosides, where hospitalisation is not feasible.
Trial registration number: NCT01027429.
Archives of disease in childhood
SATT Pakistan; oral amoxicillin; population pharmacokinetics; young infants
Mir, F., Pearce, R. E., Baig-Ansari, N., Qazi, S., Barrett, J., Abdel-Rahman, S. M., Kearns, G., Zaidi, A. Serum amoxicillin levels in young infants (0-59 days) with sepsis treated with oral amoxicillin. Archives of disease in childhood 105, 1208-1214 (2020).