State of Type 1 Diabetes Management and Outcomes from the T1D Exchange in 2016-2018.
DOI: 10.1089/dia.2018.0384; PMCID: PMC7061293
OBJECTIVE: To provide a snapshot of the profile of adults and youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the United States and assessment of longitudinal changes in T1D management and clinical outcomes in the T1D Exchange registry.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data on diabetes management and outcomes from 22,697 registry participants (age 1-93 years) were collected between 2016 and 2018 and compared with data collected in 2010-2012 for 25,529 registry participants.
RESULTS: Mean HbA1c in 2016-2018 increased from 65 mmol/mol at the age of 5 years to 78 mmol/mol between ages 15 and 18, with a decrease to 64 mmol/mol by age 28 and 58-63 mmol/mol beyond age 30. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) HbA1c goal of/mol for youth was achieved by only 17% and the goal of/mol for adults by only 21%. Mean HbA1c levels changed little between 2010-2012 and 2016-2018, except in adolescents who had a higher mean HbA1c in 2016-2018. Insulin pump use increased from 57% in 2010-2012 to 63% in 2016-2018. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) increased from 7% in 2010-2012 to 30% in 2016-2018, rising >10-fold in children≥50 years old and diabetic ketoacidosis was most common in adolescents and young adults. Racial differences were evident in use of pumps and CGM and HbA1c levels.
CONCLUSIONS: Data from the T1D Exchange registry demonstrate that only a minority of adults and youth with T1D in the United States achieve ADA goals for HbA1c.
Diabetes technology & therapeutics
Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Blood Glucose; Child; Child, Preschool; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1; Disease Management; Female; Humans; Hypoglycemic Agents; Insulin; Insulin Infusion Systems; Male; Middle Aged; Registries; United States; Young Adult
Continuous glucose monitor use; Insulin pump use.; T1D Exchange registry
Foster, N. C., Beck, R. W., Miller, K. M., Clements, M. A., Rickels, M. R., DiMeglio, L. A., Maahs, D. M., Tamborlane, W. V., Bergenstal, R., Smith, E., Olson, B. A., Garg, S. K. State of Type 1 Diabetes Management and Outcomes from the T1D Exchange in 2016-2018. Diabetes technology & therapeutics 21, 66-72 (2019).