A Review of Modifiable Risk Factors for Severe Obesity in Children Ages 5 and Under.
Early-onset severe obesity in childhood presents a significant clinical challenge signaling an urgent need for effective and sustainable interventions. A large body of literature examines overweight and obesity, but little focuses specifically on the risk factors for severe obesity in children ages 5 and younger. This narrative review identified modifiable risk factors associated with severe obesity in children ages 5 and younger: nutrition (consuming sugar sweetened beverages and fast food), activity (low frequency of outdoor play and excessive screen time), behaviors (lower satiety responsiveness, sleeping with a bottle, lack of bedtime rules, and short sleep duration), and socio-environmental risk factors (informal child care setting, history of obesity in the mother, and gestational diabetes). The lack of literature on this topic highlights the need for additional research on potentially modifiable risk factors for early-onset severe obesity.
Body Mass Index; Child; Child, Preschool; Diet; Environment; Exercise; Feeding Behavior; Female; Fruit; Humans; Infant; Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena; Infant, Newborn; Male; Maternal Health; Obesity, Morbid; Pediatric Obesity; Risk Factors; Socioeconomic Factors; Vegetables; Weight Gain
children; nutrition; physical activity; screen time; severe obesity; sleep; social determinants
Porter, R. M., Tindall, A., Gaffka, B. J., Kirk, S., Santos, M., Abraham-Pratt, I., Gray, J., Heckler, D., Ward, W. L., Tucker, J. M., Sweeney, B. A Review of Modifiable Risk Factors for Severe Obesity in Children Ages 5 and Under. Child Obes 14, 468-476 (2018).