Achieved clinic blood pressure level and chronic kidney disease progression in children: a report from the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children cohort.
BACKGROUND: Control of hypertension delays progression of pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD), yet few data are available regarding what clinic blood pressure (BP) levels may slow progression.
METHODS: Longitudinal BP data from children in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children cohort study who had hypertension or an auscultatory BP ≥ 90th percentile were studied. BP categories were defined as the maximum systolic or diastolic BP percentile (< 50th, 50th to 75th, 75th to 90th, and ≥ 90th percentile) with time-updated classifications corresponding to annual study visits. The primary outcome was time to kidney replacement therapy or a 30% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate. Cox proportional hazard models described the effect of each BP category compared to BP ≥ 90th percentile.
RESULTS: Seven hundred fifty-four participants (median age 9.9 years at study entry) met inclusion criteria; 65% were male and 26% had glomerular CKD. Any BP < 90th percentile was associated with a decreased risk of progression for those with glomerular CKD (hazard ratio (HR), 0.63; 95% CI, 0.28-1.39 (< 50th); HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.28-1.26 (50th-75th); HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.18-0.93 (75th-90th)). Similar results were found for those with non-glomerular CKD: any BP < 90th percentile was associated with decreased risk of progression (HR, 0.78; 90% CI, 0.49-1.25 (< 50th); HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.33-0.84 (50th-75th); HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.46-1.08 (75th-90th)).
CONCLUSIONS: Achieved clinic BP < 90th percentile was associated with slower CKD progression in children with glomerular or non-glomerular CKD. These data provide guidance for management of children with CKD in the office setting. Graphical abstract.
Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany)
Adolescents; Children; Chronic kidney disease; Cohort study; Glomerular filtration rate; Hypertension
Flynn, J. T., Carroll, M. K., Ng, D. K., Furth, S. L., Warady, B. A. Achieved clinic blood pressure level and chronic kidney disease progression in children: a report from the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children cohort. Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany) 36, 1551-1559 (2021).