Failure to Identify Robust Latent Variables of Positive or Negative Valence Processing Across Units of Analysis.
BACKGROUND: The heterogeneous nature of mood and anxiety disorders highlights a need for dimensionally based descriptions of psychopathology that inform better classification and treatment approaches. Following the Research Domain Criteria approach, this investigation sought to derive constructs assessing positive and negative valence domains across multiple units of analysis.
METHODS: Adults with clinically impairing mood and anxiety symptoms (N = 225) completed comprehensive assessments across several units of analysis. Self-report assessments included nine questionnaires that assess mood and anxiety symptoms and traits reflecting the negative and positive valence systems. Behavioral assessments included emotional reactivity and distress tolerance tasks, during which skin conductance and heart rate were measured. Neuroimaging assessments included fear conditioning and a reward processing task. The latent variable structure underlying these measures was explored using sparse Bayesian group factor analysis.
RESULTS: Group factor analysis identified 11 latent variables explaining 31.2% of the variance across tasks, none of which loaded across units of analysis or tasks. Instead, variance was best explained by individual latent variables for each unit of analysis within each task. Post hoc analyses 1) showed associations with small effect sizes between latent variables that were derived separately from functional magnetic resonance imaging and self-report data and 2) showed that some latent variables are not directly related to individual valence system constructs.
CONCLUSIONS: The lack of latent structure across units of analysis highlights challenges of the Research Domain Criteria approach and suggests that while dimensional analyses work well to reveal within-task features, more targeted approaches are needed to reveal latent cross-modal relationships that could illuminate psychopathology.
Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging
Anxiety disorders; Group factor analysis (GFA); Mood disorders; Negative valence processing; Positive valence processing; Research Domain Criteria (RDoC)
Peng Y, Knotts JD, Taylor CT, Craske MG, Stein MB, Bookheimer S, Young KS, Simmons AN, Yeh HW, Ruiz J, Paulus MP. Failure to Identify Robust Latent Variables of Positive or Negative Valence Processing Across Units of Analysis. Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging. 2021 May;6(5):518-526. doi: 10.1016/j.bpsc.2020.12.005. Epub 2021 Mar 3. PMID: 33676919; PMCID: PMC8113074.