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DOI: 10.1186/s41077-021-00166-0; PMCID: PMC8178899


OBJECTIVES: With ever increasingly complex healthcare settings, technology enhanced simulation (TES) is well positioned to explore all perspectives to enhance patient safety and patient outcomes. Analysis from a Safety-II stance requires identification of human adjustments in daily work that are key to maintaining safety. The aim of this paper is to describe an approach to explore the consequences of human variability from a Safety-II perspective and describe the added value of this to TES.

METHODS: The reader is guided through a novel application of functional resonance analysis methodology (FRAM), a method to analyse how a system or activity is affected by human variability, to explore human adaptations observed in in situ simulations (ISS). The structured applicability of this novel approach to TES is described by application to empirical data from the standardised ISS management of paediatric time critical head injuries (TCHI).

RESULTS: A case series is presented to illustrate the step-wise observation of key timings during ISSs, the construction of FRAM models and the visualisation of the propagation of human adaptations through the FRAM models. The key functions/actions that ensure the propagation are visible, as are the sequelae of the adaptations.

CONCLUSIONS: The approach as described in this paper is a first step to illuminating how to explore, analyse and observe the consequences of positive and negative human adaptations within simulated complex systems. This provides TES with a structured methodology to visualise and reflect upon both Safety-I and Safety-II perspectives to enhance patient safety and patient outcomes.

Journal Title

Adv Simul (Lond)





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Emergency medicine; Paediatrics; Patient safety; Simulation; Training; Trauma.


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