Three-dimensional echocardiography in congenital heart disease: an expert consensus document from the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging and the American Society of Echocardiography.
Three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) has become important in the management of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD), particularly with pre-surgical planning, guidance of catheter intervention, and functional assessment of the heart. 3DE is increasingly used in children because of good acoustic windows and the non-invasive nature of the technique. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of the optimal application of 3DE in CHD including technical considerations, image orientation, application to different lesions, procedural guidance, and functional assessment.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging
Consensus; Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional; Europe; Female; Heart Defects, Congenital; Humans; Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Male; Practice Guidelines as Topic; Societies, Medical; United States
ASE; EACVI; congenital heart disease; recommendation; three-dimensional echocardiography
Simpson, J., Lopez, L., Acar, P., Friedberg, M., Khoo, N., Ko, H., Marek, J., Marx, G., McGhie, J., Meijboom, F., Roberson, D., Van den Bosch, A., Miller, O., Shirali, G. S. Three-dimensional echocardiography in congenital heart disease: an expert consensus document from the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging and the American Society of Echocardiography. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 17, 1071-1097 (2016).