Three-dimensional echocardiography in congenital heart disease: an expert consensus document from the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging and the American Society of Echocardiography.
Three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) has become important in the management of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD), particularly with pre-surgical planning, guidance of catheter intervention, and functional assessment of the heart. 3DE is increasingly used in children because of good acoustic windows and the non-invasive nature of the technique. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of the optimal application of 3DE in CHD including technical considerations, image orientation, application to different lesions, procedural guidance, and functional assessment.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging
Consensus; Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional; Europe; Female; Heart Defects, Congenital; Humans; Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Male; Practice Guidelines as Topic; Societies, Medical; United States
ASE; EACVI; congenital heart disease; recommendation; three-dimensional echocardiography
Simpson J, Lopez L, Acar P, et al. Three-dimensional echocardiography in congenital heart disease: an expert consensus document from the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging and the American Society of Echocardiography. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2016;17(10):1071-1097. doi:10.1093/ehjci/jew172