Effect of Training Pediatric Clinicians in Human Papillomavirus Communication Strategies on Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Rates: A Cluster Randomized Clinical Trial.
Importance: Missed opportunities for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination during pediatric health care visits are common.
Objectives: To evaluate the effect of online communication training for clinicians on missed opportunities for HPV vaccination rates overall and at well-child care (WCC) visits and visits for acute or chronic illness (hereafter referred to as acute or chronic visits) and on adolescent HPV vaccination rates.
Design, Setting, and Participants: From December 26, 2018, to July 30, 2019, a longitudinal cluster randomized clinical trial allocated practices to communication training vs standard of care in staggered 6-month periods. A total of 48 primary care pediatric practices in 19 states were recruited from the American Academy of Pediatrics Pediatric Research in Office Settings network. Participants were clinicians in intervention practices. Outcomes were evaluated for all 11- to 17-year-old adolescents attending 24 intervention practices (188 clinicians) and 24 control practices (177 clinicians). Analyses were as randomized and performed on an intent-to-treat basis, accounting for clustering by practice.
Interventions: Three sequential online educational modules were developed to help participating clinicians communicate with parents about the HPV vaccine. Weekly text messages were sent to participating clinicians to reinforce learning. Statisticians were blinded to group assignment.
Main Outcomes and Measures: Main outcomes were missed opportunities for HPV vaccination overall and for HPV vaccine initiation and subsequent doses at WCC and acute or chronic visits (visit-level outcome). Secondary outcomes were HPV vaccination rates (person-level outcome). Outcomes were compared during the intervention vs baseline.
Results: Altogether, 122 of 188 clinicians in intervention practices participated; of these, 120, 119, and 116 clinicians completed training modules 1, 2, and 3, respectively. During the intervention period, 29 206 adolescents (14 664 girls [50.2%]; mean [SD] age, 14.2 [2.0] years) made 15 888 WCC and 28 123 acute or chronic visits to intervention practices; 33 914 adolescents (17 069 girls [50.3%]; mean [SD] age, 14.2 [2.0] years) made 17 910 WCC and 35 281 acute or chronic visits to control practices. Intervention practices reduced missed opportunities overall by 2.4 percentage points (-2.4%; 95% CI, -3.5% to -1.2%) more than controls. Intervention practices reduced missed opportunities for vaccine initiation during WCC visits by 6.8 percentage points (-6.8%; 95% CI, -9.7% to -3.9%) more than controls. The intervention had no effect on missed opportunities for subsequent doses of the HPV vaccine or at acute or chronic visits. Adolescents in intervention practices had a 3.4-percentage point (95% CI, 0.6%-6.2%) greater improvement in HPV vaccine initiation compared with adolescents in control practices.
Conclusions and Relevance: This scalable, online communication training increased HPV vaccination, particularly HPV vaccine initiation at WCC visits. Results support dissemination of this intervention.
Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03599557.
Szilagyi PG, Humiston SG, Stephens-Shields AJ, et al. Effect of Training Pediatric Clinicians in Human Papillomavirus Communication Strategies on Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Rates: A Cluster Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Pediatr. 2021;175(9):901-910. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.0766