Innate and Adaptive Immune Response to Fungal Products and Allergens.
Exposure to fungi and their products is practically ubiquitous, yet most of this is of little consequence to most healthy individuals. This is because there are a number of elaborate mechanisms to deal with these exposures. Most of these mechanisms are designed to recognize and neutralize such exposures. However, in understanding these mechanisms it has become clear that many of them overlap with our ability to respond to disruptions in tissue function caused by trauma or deterioration. These responses involve the innate and adaptive immune systems usually through the activation of nuclear factor kappa B and the production of cytokines that are considered inflammatory accompanied by other factors that can moderate these reactivities. Depending on different genetic backgrounds and the extent of activation of these mechanisms, various pathologies with resulting symptoms can ensue. Complicating this is the fact that these mechanisms can bias toward type 2 innate and adaptive immune responses. Thus, to understand what we refer to as allergens from fungal sources, we must first understand how they influence these innate mechanisms. In doing so it has become clear that many of the proteins that are described as fungal allergens are essentially homologues of our own proteins that signal or cause tissue disruptions.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract
Adaptive Immunity; Allergens; Animals; Fungi; Humans; Immunity, Innate
CTLR; Fungal allergens; Fungal exposure; Fungi; NLR; TLR
Williams PB, Barnes CS, Portnoy JM; Environmental Allergens Workgroup. Innate and Adaptive Immune Response to Fungal Products and Allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2016;4(3):386-395. doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2015.11.016