Document Type


Publication Date



DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciy137; PMCID: PMC6240917


Background: During the 2014-2015 US influenza season, 320 cases of non-mumps parotitis (NMP) among residents of 21 states were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). We conducted an epidemiologic and laboratory investigation to determine viral etiologies and clinical features of NMP during this unusually large occurrence.

Methods: NMP was defined as acute parotitis or other salivary gland swelling of >2 days duration in a person with a mumps- negative laboratory result. Using a standardized questionnaire, we collected demographic and clinical information. Buccal samples were tested at the CDC for selected viruses, including mumps, influenza, human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) 1-4, adenoviruses, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) 1 and 2, and human herpes viruses (HHVs) 6A and 6B.

Results: Among the 320 patients, 65% were male, median age was 14.5 years (range, 0-90), and 67% reported unilateral parotitis. Commonly reported symptoms included sore throat (55%) and fever (48%). Viruses were detected in 210 (71%) of 294 NMP patients with adequate samples for testing, ≥2 viruses were detected in 37 samples, and 248 total virus detections were made among all samples. These included 156 influenza A(H3N2), 42 HHV6B, 32 EBV, 8 HPIV2, 2 HPIV3, 3 adenovirus, 4 HSV-1, and 1 HSV-2. Influenza A(H3N2), HHV6B, and EBV were the most frequently codetected viruses.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that, in addition to mumps, clinicians should consider respiratory viral (influenza) and herpes viral etiologies for parotitis, particularly among patients without epidemiologic links to mumps cases or outbreaks.

Journal Title

Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America





First Page


Last Page


MeSH Keywords

Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Child; Child, Preschool; Female; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Influenza, Human; Male; Middle Aged; Mumps; Parotitis; Pharyngitis; Seasons; Surveys and Questionnaires; United States; Viruses; Young Adult


Human Influenza; Mumps; Parotitis; Pharyngitis; Seasons; Surveys and Questionnaires; Viruses


Grant support

This article is a work of the United States government. Such works are not entitled to domestic copyright protection under U.S. law and are therefore in the public domain.

Publisher's Link: