Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin Improves Event-Free Survival and Reduces Relapse in Pediatric KMT2A-Rearranged AML: Results From the Phase III Children's Oncology Group Trial AAML0531
Purpose: We investigated the impact of the CD33-targeted agent gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) on survival in pediatric patients with KMT2A-rearranged (KMT2A-r) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) enrolled in the Children's Oncology Group trial AAML0531 (NCT01407757).
Methods: Patients with KMT2A-r AML were identified and clinical characteristics described. Five-year overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and relapse risk (RR) were determined overall and for higher-risk versus not high-risk translocation partners. GO's impact on response was determined and outcomes based on consolidation approach (hematopoietic stem cell transplant [HSCT] v chemotherapy) described.
Results: Two hundred fifteen (21%) of 1,022 patients enrolled had KMT2A-r AML. Five-year EFS and OS from study entry were 38% and 58%, respectively. EFS was superior with GO treatment (EFS 48% with GO v 29% without, P = .003), although OS was comparable (63% v 53%, P = .054). For patients with KMT2A-r AML who achieved complete remission, GO was associated with lower RR (40% GO v 66% patients who did not receive GO [No-GO], P = .001) and improved 5-year DFS (GO 57% v No-GO 33%, P = .002). GO benefit was observed in both higher-risk and not high-risk KMT2A-r subsets. For patients who underwent HSCT, prior GO exposure was associated with decreased relapse (5-year RR: 28% GO and HSCT v 73% No-GO and HSCT, P = .006). In multivariable analysis, GO was independently associated with improved EFS, improved DFS, and reduced RR.
Conclusion: GO added to conventional chemotherapy improved outcomes for KMT2A-r AML; consolidation with HSCT may further enhance outcomes. Future clinical trials should study CD33-targeted agents in combination with HSCT for pediatric KMT2A-r AML.
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Pollard JA, Guest E, Alonzo TA, et al. Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin Improves Event-Free Survival and Reduces Relapse in Pediatric KMT2A-Rearranged AML: Results From the Phase III Children's Oncology Group Trial AAML0531. J Clin Oncol. 2021;39(28):3149-3160. doi:10.1200/JCO.20.03048