DOI: 10.3390/biomedicines9101386; PMCID: PMC8533357
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of breast cancer that disproportionally accounts for the majority of breast cancer-related deaths due to the lack of specific targets for effective treatments. In this review, we highlight the complexity of the transforming growth factor-beta family (TGF-β) pathway and discuss how the dysregulation of the TGF-β pathway promotes oncogenic attributes in TNBC, which negatively affects patient prognosis. Moreover, we discuss recent findings highlighting TGF-β inhibition as a potent method to target mesenchymal (CD44+/CD24-) and epithelial (ALDHhigh) cancer stem cell (CSC) populations. CSCs are associated with tumorigenesis, metastasis, relapse, resistance, and diminished patient prognosis; however, due to differential signal pathway enrichment and plasticity, these populations remain difficult to target and persist as a major barrier barring successful therapy. This review highlights the importance of TGF-β as a driver of chemoresistance, radioresistance and reduced patient prognosis in breast cancer and highlights novel treatment strategies which modulate TGF-β, impede cancer progression and reduce the rate of resistance generation via targeting the CSC populations in TNBC and thus reducing tumorigenicity. Potential TGF-β inhibitors targeting based on clinical trials are summarized for further investigation, which may lead to the development of novel therapies to improve TNBC patient prognosis.
TGF-β; cancer stem cell; triple-negative breast cancer
Sulaiman A, McGarry S, Chilumula SC, Kandunuri R, Vinod V. Clinically Translatable Approaches of Inhibiting TGF-β to Target Cancer Stem Cells in TNBC. Biomedicines. 2021;9(10):1386. Published 2021 Oct 4. doi:10.3390/biomedicines9101386
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Publisher's Link: https://www.mdpi.com/2227-9059/9/10/1386