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DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2021.743494; PMCID: PMC8527557


We investigated the association between genetic variations in pharmacodynamic genes and risperidone-induced increased prolactin levels in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In a retrospective study, variants of pharmacodynamic genes were analyzed in 124 ASD patients treated with a risperidone regimen for at least 3 months. To simplify genotype interpretation, we created an algorithm to calculate the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene genetic risk score. There was no relationship between prolactin levels and single SNPs. However, the H1/H3 diplotype (A2/A2-Cin/Cin-A/G) of DRD2/ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 (ANKK1) Taq1A, DRD2 -141C indel, and DRD2 -141A>G, which had a genetic risk score of 5.5, was associated with the highest median prolactin levels (23 ng/ml). As the dose-corrected plasma levels of risperidone, 9-OH-risperidone, and the active moiety increased, prolactin levels in patients carrying the H1/H3 diplotype were significantly higher than those of the other diplotypes. DRD2 diplotypes showed significantly high prolactin levels as plasma risperidone levels increased. Lower levels of prolactin were detected in patients who responded to risperidone. This is the first system for describing DRD2 haplotypes using genetic risk scores based on their protein expression. Clinicians should consider using pharmacogenetic-based decision-making in clinical practice to prevent prolactin increase.

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Front Pharmacol



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autism spectrum disorder; dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2); genetic risk score; prolactin; risperidone


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