Tisagenlecleucel is indicated for pediatric and young adult patients with relapsed/refractory (r/r) B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) and adult patients with r/r diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The tisagenlecleucel chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) contains a murine single-chain variable fragment domain; we examined the effects of humoral and cellular immune responses to tisagenlecleucel on clinical outcomes using 2 validated assays. Data were pooled from the ELIANA (registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02435849) and ENSIGN (#NCT02228096) trials in r/r B-ALL (N = 143) and the JULIET trial (#NCT02445248) in r/r DLBCL (N = 115). Humoral responses were determined by flow cytometric measurement of anti-murine CAR19 (mCAR19) antibodies in serum. Cellular responses were determined using T-cell production of interferon-γ in response to 2 different pools of mCAR19 peptides. Pretreatment anti-mCAR19 antibodies were detected in 81% of patients with r/r B-ALL and 94% of patients with r/r DLBCL. Posttreatment anti-mCAR19 antibodies were higher than patient-specific baseline in 42% of r/r B-ALL and 9% of r/r DLBCL patients. Pretreatment and posttreatment anti-mCAR19 antibodies did not affect tisagenlecleucel cellular kinetics, including maximum concentration and persistence (r2 < 0.05), clinical response (day-28 response, duration of response, and event-free survival), and safety. T-cell responses were consistent over time, with net responses <1% at baseline and posttreatment time points in a majority of patients and no effect on transgene expansion or persistence or outcomes. Presence of baseline and/or posttreatment anti-mCAR19 antibodies or T-cell responses did not alter the activity of tisagenlecleucel in patients with r/r B-ALL or r/r DLBCL.
Thudium Mueller K, Grupp SA, Maude SL, et al. Tisagenlecleucel immunogenicity in relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Blood Adv. 2021;5(23):4980-4991. doi:10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003844