Eating patterns and food intake of persons with type 1 diabetes within the T1D exchange.

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DOI: 10.1016/j.diabres.2018.05.011; PMCID: PMC7423164


Aims: To identify dietary intake and eating patterns of people with type 1 diabetes from childhood to later adulthood in relation to HbA1c.

Methods: Trained interviewers conducted 24-hour recalls via phone utilizing a multiple pass approach and administered two nutrition questionnaires; 463 participants (or parents of participants) within the T1D Exchange clinic registry were included. Participants were 5 to 81 years with 80-101 participants in five age groups; 56% were female, and 92% were white, with a median diabetes duration of 11.1 years and a median HbA1c of 7.4% [57 mmol/mol]).

Results: Those with type 1 diabetes consumed less calories from carbohydrates and more from fats and protein than those in the general population, based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. Carbohydrate intake was not correlated with HbA1c levels. Increased fiber intake, more eating occasions, higher Healthy Eating Index scores, and higher nutrition knowledge scores were each associated with lower HbA1c levels.

Conclusions: Food intake, eating patterns and nutrition knowledge are associated with glycemic control across a registry-based cohort of adults and children with type 1 diabetes. Additionally, these data can inform the design of future studies to advance our understanding of nutritional influences on type 1 diabetes self-care and control.

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Diabetes research and clinical practice



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MeSH Keywords

Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Child; Child, Preschool; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1; Eating; Feeding Behavior; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Nutrition Surveys; Young Adult


Adults; Children; Eating patterns; Glycemic control; Type 1 diabetes

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