The association between depression symptom endorsement and glycemic outcomes in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of depression among adolescents with type 1 diabetes is estimated to be 2-3 times higher than in the general population. In adults with type 1 diabetes and depression, short-term outcomes are worse compared to individuals just diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. This study aims to determine if depressive symptom endorsement is associated with glycemic outcomes and short-term complications in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Analysis was conducted using electronic medical records from the T1D Exchange Quality Improvement Collaborative. Adolescents with type 1 diabetes, aged 12-18, receiving treatment in a diabetes clinic who had been screened for depression with the PHQ-9 between 2016 and 2018 were eligible for inclusion. Individuals must have also had HbA1c data available from the day of depression screening and from 10 to 24 weeks after screening; the final sample size was 1714.
RESULTS: Almost 30% of adolescents endorsed mild or greater (PHQ-9 ≥ 5) depressive symptoms. Endorsement of mild or greater depressive symptoms was associated with an 18% increased risk of an HbA1c ≥7.5% and a 42% increased risk of an HbA1c ≥9.0% on the day of screener administration. Depressive symptom endorsement was also associated with an 82% increased risk for DKA.
CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that depression symptoms are associated with an increased risk for elevated HbA1c and short-term complications. With the rising incidence of type 1 diabetes in youth, routine screening, and appropriate management of depression is needed.
comorbidity; glycated hemoglobin A1c; major depressive disorder; patient outcomes; type 1 diabetes mellitus
Garey CJ, Clements MA, McAuliffe-Fogarty AH, et al. The association between depression symptom endorsement and glycemic outcomes in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Pediatr Diabetes. 2022;23(2):248-257. doi:10.1111/pedi.13290