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PMCID: PMC6233994 DOI: 10.1111/pedi.12471


Objective: To examine whether self-efficacy buffers the deleterious consequences of diabetes-specific family conflict on self-monitoring blood glucose (SMBG) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in youth with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).

Methods: A total of 129 youth with T1DM (aged 10-16 years) completed measures of diabetes-specific family conflict and self-efficacy for diabetes management, and their blood glucose meter data and HbA1c were extracted from the electronic medical record. We preformed moderation analyses to examine whether self-efficacy moderated the association that diabetes-specific family conflict had with SMBG and HbA1c. We used simple slopes analyses to probe significant interactions.

Results: Our results indicated that self-efficacy moderated the association that diabetes-specific family conflict had with SMBG and HbA1c. The pattern of these findings showed that high self-efficacy buffered the negative impact of diabetes conflict on HbA1c. However, benefits of high self-efficacy for more frequent SMBG was only apparent in the context of low diabetes-specific family conflict.

Conclusions: Study findings highlight the interactive relationship between diabetes-specific family conflict and self-efficacy in relation to SMBG and glycemic control. These findings suggest that family functioning and youth's self-efficacy are promising intervention targets for families having trouble with SMBG and HbA1c.

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Pediatric diabetes





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MeSH Keywords

Adolescent; Adolescent Behavior; Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring; Child; Child Behavior; Cost of Illness; Cross-Sectional Studies; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1; Electronic Health Records; Family Conflict; Female; Glycated Hemoglobin A; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Humans; Hyperglycemia; Hypoglycemia; Male; Midwestern United States; Patient Compliance; Patient Education as Topic; Self Efficacy; Self-Management; Stress, Psychological


Patient Compliance; Patient Education; hemoglobin A1c; self-management; type 1 diabetes mellitus