Hydroxycarbamide in children with sickle cell anaemia after first-dose vs. chronic therapy: pharmacokinetics and predictive models for drug exposure.
PMCID: PMC6005595; DOI: 10.1111/bcp.13426
Aims: The purposes of this work were to: (1) compare pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters for hydroxycarbamide in children receiving their first dose (HCnew ) vs. those receiving chronic therapy (HCchronic ), (2) assess the external validity of a published PK dosing strategy, and (3) explore the accuracy of dosing strategies based on a limited number of HC measurements.
Methods: Utilizing data from two prospective, multicenter trials of hydroxycarbamide (Pharmacokinetics of Liquid Hydroxyurea in Pediatric Patients with Sickle Cell Anemia; NCT01506544 and Single-Dose (SD) and Steady-State (SS) Pharmacokinetics of Hydroxyurea in Children and Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease), plasma drug concentration vs. time profiles were evaluated with a model independent approach in the HCnew and HCchronic groups. Various predictive scenarios were analysed to evaluate whether systemic exposure with hydroxycarbamide could be accurately predicted.
Results: Absorption of hydroxycarbamide was rapid, variable and dose independent. Dose-normalized peak plasma concentrations and drug exposure (AUC) were higher, and weight-normalized apparent oral clearance was lower in the HCnew group. We assessed a PK-guided dosing strategy along with other predictive scenarios and found that inclusion of plasma samples only slightly improved the accuracy of AUC predictions when compared to a population-based method.
Conclusions: Children naïve to hydroxycarbamide exhibit a different PK profile compared to children receiving chronic therapy. Accuracy of population-based dosing is sufficient to target AUCs in individual patients. Further clearance/bioavailability studies are needed to address the factors responsible for variability in the disposition of hydroxycarbamide.
British journal of clinical pharmacology
Anemia, Sickle Cell; Hydroxyurea/pharmacokinetics; Child
Hydroxycarbomide; Sickle cell anemia
Estepp, J. H., Wiczling, P., Moen, J., Kang, G., Mack, J. M., Liem, R., Panepinto, J. A., Garg, U., Kearns, G., Neville, K. A. Hydroxycarbamide in children with sickle cell anaemia after first-dose vs. chronic therapy: pharmacokinetics and predictive models for drug exposure. British journal of clinical pharmacology 84, 1478-1485 (2018).