Dialysis Outcomes for Children With Lupus Nephritis Compared to Children With Other Forms of Nephritis: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

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DOI: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2021.07.013


RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Children with lupus nephritis (LN) are at high risk of developing kidney failure requiring initiation of kidney replacement therapy. This study compared outcomes among children with LN on dialysis with children with non-lupus glomerular disease and investigated risk factors for adverse outcomes among children with LN on dialysis.

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study.

SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Children and adolescents aged 6-20 years with LN (n = 231) and non-lupus glomerular disease (n = 1,726) who initiated maintenance dialysis 1991-2018 and were enrolled in the North American Pediatric Renal Trials and Collaborative Studies (NAPRTCS) registry.

EXPOSURE: Lupus nephritis.

OUTCOME: Hospitalization, mortality, and time to transplant.

ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Contingency tables were used to compare hospitalizations, and multivariable cause-specific hazards models were used to compare rates of death and transplantation in children with LN compared with those with non-lupus glomerular disease. Using data from children with LN, multivariable logistic regression models were fit to evaluate the risk factors for hospitalization, and multivariable Cox regression models were fit to evaluate factors associated with kidney transplantation.

RESULTS: Children with LN were more likely to be hospitalized in the first year after dialysis initiation (63.3% vs 48.6%, P < 0.001) and were less likely to receive a kidney transplant in the first 3 years after dialysis initiation (year 0-1: adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 0.36 [95% CI, 0.23-0.57], P < 0.001; year 1-3: AHR, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.54-0.98], P = 0.04). Anemia was associated with hospitalization after dialysis initiation (adjusted OR, 4.44 [95% CI, 1.44-13.66], P = 0.01). Non-White race was associated with a lower rate of kidney transplantation (AHR, 0.47 [95% CI, 0.27-0.82], P = 0.01). LN was not associated with death while on dialysis (AHR, 1.21 [95% CI, 0.47-3.11], P = 0.7).

LIMITATIONS: The NAPRTCS registry does not collect information on lupus disease activity or medication doses and has limited data on medication use.

CONCLUSIONS: Children and adolescents with LN on dialysis are at higher risk for adverse outcomes including hospitalization and lower rates of kidney transplantation compared with children with non-lupus glomerular disease receiving maintenance dialysis.

Journal Title

American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation





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MeSH Keywords

Adolescent; Child; Female; Humans; Kidney Failure, Chronic; Kidney Transplantation; Lupus Nephritis; Male; Renal Dialysis; Retrospective Studies


Children; dialysis; end-stage kidney disease (ESKD); glomerular disease; lupus nephritis (LN); mortality; pediatric; registry; renal replacement therapy (RRT); systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

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