A Nonrandomized Pilot of a Group, Video-Based Telehealth Intervention to Reduce Diabetes Distress in Parents of Youth With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

Document Type


Publication Date



DOI: 10.1016/j.jcjd.2021.10.007


OBJECTIVES: Our aim in this study was to refine and pilot a video-based telehealth intervention to reduce diabetes distress, depressive symptoms and hypoglycemia fear in parents of school-age children with type 1 diabetes and to assess for changes in child glycated hemoglobin (A1C).

METHODS: We recruited 41 parents of children (5 to 12 years) to participate in a manualized, video-based telehealth intervention (Cognitive Adaptions to Reduce Emotional Stress [CARES]). Of these, 29 parents completed either a 12-week (n=13) or 8-week (n=16) version of CARES based on the timing of their recruitment. We assessed feasibility (i.e. attrition, attendance) and parent satisfaction with CARES. We used repeated-measures analysis of variance with parent group (8 vs 12 sessions) as a between-subject variable and time as a within-subject variable to measure change in our dependent variables.

RESULTS: Mostly mothers participated (97.3%). Parents' mean age was 39.65±6.84 years and children's mean age was 9.86±1.57 years at pretreatment. CARES had low attrition (20% to 25%) and good attendance (96% to 98%). Parents also reported high levels of treatment satisfaction (>85%). There were significant main effects for time for parent-reported diabetes distress and depressive symptoms at posttreatment and 3-month follow-up. There was a statistical trend suggesting a time × group interaction for parent depressive symptoms at posttreatment. There was a significant main effect for time for hypoglycemia fear at the 3-month follow-up but no change at posttreatment. There was no change in child A1C at posttreatment.

CONCLUSION: CARES showed high parent satisfaction, good feasibility and promising results for reducing diabetes distress in parents of school-age children with type 1 diabetes.

Journal Title

Can J Diabetes





First Page


Last Page


MeSH Keywords

Adolescent; Adult; Child; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1; Glycated Hemoglobin A; Humans; Hypoglycemia; Middle Aged; Parents; Telemedicine


children; diabetes distress; détresse liée au diabète; enfants; parentalité; parenting; telehealth; traitement; treatment; télésanté

Library Record