Intrapersonal, interpersonal and environmental correlates of moderate to vigorous physical activity and sedentary time in adolescents with intellectual and developmental disabilities.
BACKGROUND: Although correlates of physical activity (PA) have been extensively examined in both children and adolescents who are typically developing, little is known about correlates of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time in adolescents with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Therefore, we examined intrapersonal, interpersonal and environmental factors and their association with device-based MVPA and sedentary time in adolescents with IDD.
METHODS: MVPA and sedentary time was assessed using a hip-worn ActiGraph model wGT3x-BT tri-axial accelerometer across a 7-day period in adolescents with IDD and one of their parents. Pearson and point-biserial correlations were calculated to inspect the associations of PA (MVPA, sedentary time) with intrapersonal factors (demographic characteristic, BMI, waist circumference, motor ability, muscle strength, grip strength, cardiovascular fitness and self-efficacy for PA), interpersonal factors (parent demographics, parent BMI, parent MVPA and sedentary time, family social support for PA, parent barriers and support for PA, parent's beliefs/attitudes towards PA and number of siblings), and environmental factors (meteorologic season and COVID-19). Ordinary least squares regression was used to estimate the unique contributions of key factors to PA after controlling for participants' age, sex, race, waist circumference and total wear time.
RESULTS: Ninety-two adolescents (15.5 ± 3.0 years old, 21.7% non-White, 6.5% Hispanic, 56.5% female) provided valid accelerometer data. Average sedentary time was 494.6 ± 136.4 min/day and average MVPA was 19.8 ± 24.2 min/day. Age (r = 0.27, P = 0.01), diagnosis of congenital heart disease (r = -0.26, P = 0.01) and parent sedentary time (r = 0.30, P = 0.01) were correlated with sedentary time. BMI (r = -0.24, P = 0.03), waist circumference (r = -0.28, P = 0.01), identifying as White (r = -0.23, P = 0.03) and parent MVPA (r = 0.56, P < 0.001) were correlated with MVPA. After adjusting for the adolescent's age, sex, race, waist circumference, and total wear time, the association between parent and adolescent MVPA remained significant (b = 0.55, P < 0.01, partial η2 = 0.11).
CONCLUSION: The results of this study provide evidence that race, waist circumference and parental MVPA may influence the amount of MVPA in adolescents with IDD. The limited available information and the potential health benefits of increased MVPA highlight the need to evaluate the effectiveness of multi-component interventions targeting both intrapersonal and interpersonal levels to promote increased PA in adolescents with IDD.
Journal of intellectual disability research : JIDR
Adolescent; COVID-19; Child; Developmental Disabilities; Exercise; Female; Humans; Male; Sedentary Behavior; Waist Circumference
ASD; Down syndrome; exercise; fitness; parent; youth
Ptomey LT, Helsel BC, White DA, et al. Intrapersonal, interpersonal and environmental correlates of moderate to vigorous physical activity and sedentary time in adolescents with intellectual and developmental disabilities. J Intellect Disabil Res. 2022;66(6):503-516. doi:10.1111/jir.12920