The presence of a neurodiverse disorder is associated with increased use of antegrade enema therapy in children with severe constipation: A study from the Pediatric Colorectal and Pelvic Learning Consortium (PCPLC).
INTRODUCTION: Children with severe constipation and a neurodiverse disorder (Autism and/or developmental delay) represent a challenging bowel management group. Treatment outcomes with laxative or enema therapy remain limited and are often complicated by patient/caregiver compliance. We hypothesized that children with neurodiverse disorders and severe constipation would benefit from a bowel management program (BMP) that includes early use of antegrade enemas.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children requiring BMP in the Pediatric Colorectal and Pelvic Learning Consortium (PCPLC) registry with diagnosis of constipation and/or constipation with pseudo-incontinence were reviewed. Those with Hirschsprung disease and/or Anorectal Malformation were excluded. BMP needs in patients with a neurodiverse diagnosis were compared to those without to evaluate differences in BMP's.
RESULTS: 372 patients requiring a BMP were identified. 95 patients (58 autism spectrum, 54 developmental delay) were neurodiverse, and 277 patients were not. Neurodiverse patients had a higher prevalence of enema therapy 62.1% (59/95) vs. 54.9% (152/273) and use of antegrade enema therapy 33.7% (32/95) vs. 21.2% (58/273), p = 0.126. Neurodiverse patients were older 37.9% (36/95) > 12 years vs. 23.1% (63/273), p = 0.001 and 47.6% (10/21) were changed from laxative to enema therapy over time. 80% (8/10) of those changed from laxatives to enemas used antegrade therapy. 67.3% (35/52) of neurodiverse patients followed over time were on enema therapy at the most recent visit with 80% (28/35) requiring antegrade therapy.
CONCLUSION: A large portion of patients with a neurodiverse disorder who fail laxative therapy use antegrade enemas to achieve effective bowel management. Early consideration of an antegrade conduit may simplify treatment in this group of children.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.
Journal of pediatric surgery
Child; Colorectal Neoplasms; Constipation; Enema; Fecal Incontinence; Humans; Laxatives; Retrospective Studies; Treatment Outcome
Autism; Bowel management; Constipation; Neurodiverse
Short SS, Reeder RW, Lewis KE, et al. The presence of a neurodiverse disorder is associated with increased use of antegrade enema therapy in children with severe constipation: A study from the Pediatric Colorectal and Pelvic Learning Consortium (PCPLC). J Pediatr Surg. 2022;57(8):1676-1680. doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2022.04.008