Pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains a fatal disease for at least 30% of patients, stressing the need for improved therapies and better risk stratification. As proteins are the unifying feature of (epi)genetic and environmental alterations, and are often targeted by novel chemotherapeutic agents, we studied the proteomic landscape of pediatric AML. Protein expression and activation levels were measured in 500 bulk leukemic patients' samples and 30 control CD34+ cell samples, using reverse phase protein arrays with 296 strictly validated antibodies. The multistep MetaGalaxy analysis methodology was applied and identified nine protein expression signatures (PrSIG), based on strong recurrent protein expression patterns. PrSIG were associated with cytogenetics and mutational state, and with favorable or unfavorable prognosis. Analysis based on treatment (i.e., ADE vs. ADE plus bortezomib) identified three PrSIG that did better with ADE plus bortezomib than with ADE alone. When PrSIG were studied in the context of cytogenetic risk groups, PrSIG were independently prognostic after multivariate analysis, suggesting a potential value for proteomics in combination with current classification systems. Proteins with universally increased (n=7) or decreased (n=17) expression were observed across PrSIG. Certain proteins significantly differentially expressed from normal could be identified, forming a hypothetical platform for personalized medicine.
Hoff FW, Van Dijk AD, Qiu Y, et al. Clinical relevance of proteomic profiling in de novo pediatric acute myeloid leukemia: a Children's Oncology Group study. Haematologica. 2022;107(10):2329-2343. Published 2022 Oct 1. doi:10.3324/haematol.2021.279672