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DOI: 10.1016/j.diabres.2022.110156; PMCID: PMC9663407


Aims: We examined diabetes status (no diabetes; type 1 diabetes [T1D]; type 2 diabetes [T2D]) and other demographic and clinical factors as correlates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related hospitalization. Further, we evaluated predictors of COVID-19-related hospitalization in T1D and T2D.

Methods: We analyzed electronic health record data from the de-identified COVID-19 database (December 2019 through mid-September 2020; 87 US health systems). Logistic mixed models were used to examine predictors of hospitalization at index encounters associated with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Results: In 116,370 adults ( >=18 years old) with COVID-19 (93,098 no diabetes; 802 T1D; 22,470 T2D), factors that independently increased risk for hospitalization included diabetes, male sex, public health insurance, decreased body mass index (BMI; < 25.0-29.9 kg/m2), increased BMI ( >25.0-29.9 kg/m2), vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency, and Elixhauser comorbidity score. After further adjustment for concurrent hyperglycemia and acidosis in those with diabetes, hospitalization risk was substantially higher in T1D than T2D and in those with low vitamin D and elevated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c).

Conclusions: The higher hospitalization risk in T1D versus T2D warrants further investigation. Modifiable risk factors such as vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency, BMI, and elevated HbA1c may serve as prognostic indicators for COVID-19-related hospitalization in adults with diabetes.

Journal Title

Diabetes research and clinical practice



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MeSH Keywords

Adult; Male; Humans; Adolescent; COVID-19; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; Retrospective Studies; SARS-CoV-2; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1; Hospitalization; Vitamin D Deficiency


COVID-19; Comorbidities; Hospitalization; Type 1 diabetes; Type 2 diabetes; Vitamin D


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