Longitudinal changes in uric acid concentration and their relationship with chronic kidney disease progression in children and adolescents.
BACKGROUND: Elevated serum uric acid concentration is a risk factor for CKD progression. Its change over time and association with CKD etiology and concomitant changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in children and adolescents are unknown.
METHODS: Longitudinal study of 153 children/adolescents with glomerular (G) and 540 with non-glomerular (NG) etiology from the CKD in Children (CKiD) study. Baseline serum uric acid, change in uric acid and eGFR over time, CKD etiology, and comorbidities were monitored. Adjusted linear mixed-effects regression models quantified the relationship between within-person changes in uric acid and concurrent within-person changes in eGFR.
RESULTS: Participants with stable uric acid over follow-up had CKD progression which became worse for increased baseline uric acid (average annual percentage changes in eGFR were - 1.4%, - 7.7%, and - 14.7% in those with G CKD with baseline uric acid < 5.5 mg/dL, 5.5 - 7.5 mg/dL, and > 7.5 mg/dL, respectively; these changes were - 1.4%, - 4.1%, and - 8.6% in NG CKD). Each 1 mg/dL increase in uric acid over follow-up was independently associated with significant concomitant eGFR decreases of - 5.7% (95%CI - 8.4 to - 3.0%) (G) and - 5.1% (95%CI - 6.3 to - 4.0%) (NG) for those with baseline uric acid < 5.5 mg/dL and - 4.3% (95%CI - 6.8 to - 1.6%) (G) and - 3.3% (95%CI - 4.1 to - 2.6%) (NG) with baseline uric acid between 5.5 and 7.5 mg/dL.
CONCLUSIONS: Higher uric acid levels and increases in uric acid over time are risk factors for more severe progression of CKD in children and adolescents. A higher resolution version of the Graphical abstract is available as Supplementary information.
Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany)
Humans; Child; Adolescent; Uric Acid; Longitudinal Studies; Renal Insufficiency, Chronic; Glomerular Filtration Rate; Risk Factors; Disease Progression
Chronic Kidney Disease; Kidney progression; Pediatrics; Uric acid; eGFR
Schwartz GJ, Roem JL, Hooper SR, et al. Longitudinal changes in uric acid concentration and their relationship with chronic kidney disease progression in children and adolescents. Pediatr Nephrol. 2023;38(2):489-497. doi:10.1007/s00467-022-05620-3